Presentation on theme: "Case study International Best Practice: South Africa (RSA) Gabriele Sauberer (TermNet)"— Presentation transcript:
Case study International Best Practice: South Africa (RSA) Gabriele Sauberer (TermNet)
EAFT Seminar Dublin2 1. Executive Secretary of TermNet Projects, Business development & PR 2. Interdisciplinary research & training at the University of Vienna, Centre for Translation Studies Intercultural management, project management & diversity management 3. Board member of EAFT
EAFT Seminar Dublin3 Content of presentation Introduction: role of terminology Policies & Frameworks in RSA Practice, Projects & Training
In loving memory of Xolile Mfaxa Director of Language Planning and Terminology Coordination at the National Language Services of the South African Department of Arts and Culture Distinguished expert and colleague Close friend and brother Who met his untimely death on 1st May 2007 toghether with Nomhi, his wife, and their children Oyisa and Umuhle LALANI NGOXOLO LUSAPHO LWAKWANTLANE!
EAFT Seminar Dublin5 South Africa has eleven official languages. The challenge is to translate this constitutional provision into living reality. (Dr Pallo Jordan, South Africa´s Minister of Arts and Culture)
EAFT Seminar Dublin6 That´s what terminology development, management & training in RSA is all about: to empower people to translate human rights into reality. e.g. by enabling access to legal and other public information in people´s mother tongues.
EAFT Seminar Dublin7 Role of Terminology The language we use and need to understand in public and business life is less general language than specialized language characterized by the terms of the respective subject fields e.g. legal texts, parliament speeches, court terminology, science and technology, etc.
EAFT Seminar Dublin8 Role of Terminology Terminology skills: a key qualification of information professionals and language practitioners, particularly in RSA and SADC applies to all levels of information and knowledge creation, storing and processing
EAFT Seminar Dublin9 Role of Terminology ranging from basic terminology teaching to applied terminology in sophisticated Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industries and... in Human Language Technologies (HLT)... in the Semantic Web... in e-Business, e-Health, etc.
EAFT Seminar Dublin10 Role of Terminology Important part of the translation of a constitutional provision into living reality: to develop terminology in the indigenous languages of African languages communities.
Policies & Frameworks 1.South African Languages Bill 2.Pan South African Language Board Act EAFT Seminar Dublin11
Constitution The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996, section 6) recogni- ses the principle of multilingualism by providing for eleven official languages of South Africa and for all official languages to enjoy parity of esteem and to be treated equitably; EAFT Seminar Dublin12
2. South African Languages Bill To provide for an enabling framework for promoting South Africas linguistic diversity and encouraging respect for language rights within the framework of building and consolidating a united, democratic South African nation, taking into account the broad acceptance of linguistic diversity, social justice, EAFT Seminar Dublin13
2. South African Languages Bill the principle of equal access to public services and programmes, respect for language rights, the establishment of language services at all levels of government, the powers and functions of such services, and matters connected therewith EAFT Seminar Dublin14
Language policy 5(1) All official languages shall be used equitably and enjoy parity of esteem. (2)Without derogating from the provision in subsection (1), the national government must use not less than four languages for any given purpose as provided for in section 7(b), provided that these languages shall be selected by each organ of state from each of the four categories of official languages in subsection (3) on a rotational basis, except when it is reasonably necessary to follow an alternative policy in the interest of effective governance or communication EAFT Seminar Dublin15
Language policy (3) The categories of languages referred to in subsection (2) are – (a)the Nguni group (isiNdebele, isiXhosa, isiZulu and siSwati) (b)the Sotho group (Sepedi, Sesotho and Setswana) (c)Tshivenda/Xitsonga (d)Afrikaans/English EAFT Seminar Dublin16
Language units 6(1) Within three years after the commencement of this Act, a language unit must be established – (a)for each department of the national government; and (b)for each province EAFT Seminar Dublin17
Language units 7(1) A language unit shall have the powers and functions to – (a)implement and monitor the implemen- tation of regulations made in fulfillment of the obligations imposed by this Act; (b)take effective and positive measures for the implementation of the national language policy as determined in section 5 in regard to the following: … EAFT Seminar Dublin18
Language units (c) conduct language surveys and audits relevant to its sphere of activity (...); (d)inform the public, (...), of the content and implementation of the language policy of the relevant organ of state; (e)do all things incidental to or necessary for the proper fulfillment of the obligations referred to in paragraphs (a) to (d) EAFT Seminar Dublin19
Development of indigenous languages and South African Sign Language/s 8 Subject to the provisions of section 9(a), the Minister shall take practical and positive measures for the development of the indigenous languages and South African Sign Language/s, in particular to – EAFT Seminar Dublin20
Development of indigenous languages (a) identify priority areas for the development of these languages; (b)support existing structures involved in the development of these languages; (c)establish new structures and programmes for the development of these languages, and (d)support cross-border projects for the development of these languages in the Southern African region EAFT Seminar Dublin21
PanSALB – ACT To provide for the recognition, implementation and furtherance of multilingualism in the Republic of South Africa; and the development of previously marginalised languages; to establish a Pan South African Language Board; and to provide for matters connected therewith EAFT Seminar Dublin22
PanSALB The Board shall have the following objects: (a)To promote respect for and ensure the implementation of the following principles: (i)The creation of conditions for the development and for the promotion of the equal use and enjoyment of all the official South African languages; EAFT Seminar Dublin23
PanSALB (iv)the promotion of- (aa)multilingualism; and (bb)the provision of translation and interpreting facilities; (v)the fostering of respect for languages spoken in the Republic other than the official languages, and the encouragement of their use in appropriate circumstances; and EAFT Seminar Dublin24
PanSALB and (vi)the non-diminution of rights relating to language and the status of languages existing before 27 April 1994; EAFT Seminar Dublin25
PanSALB (b)to further the development of the official South African languages; (c)to promote respect for and the development of other languages used by communities in South Africa, and languages used for religious purposes; EAFT Seminar Dublin26
(d)to promote knowledge of and respect for the provisions and principles of the Constitution relating directly or indirectly to language matters; (e)to promote respect for multilingualism in general; and (f)to promote the utilisation of South Africa's language resources EAFT Seminar Dublin27
(2) The Board shall- (a)initiate studies and research aimed at promoting and creating conditions for the development and use of- (i) all the official languages of the Republic; (ii) the Khoe and San languages; and (iii)sign language; EAFT Seminar Dublin28
(2) The Board shall- (b)promote and ensure respect for- (i)all other languages commonly used by communities in South Africa, including German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Portuguese, Tamil, Telegu and Urdu; (ii)Arabic, Hebrew, Sanskrit and other languages used for religious purposes in South Africa; (…) EAFT Seminar Dublin29
PanSALB terminology mentioned in a definition: 'acknowledged, practising language worker' means a person with extensive experience and training in interpreting or translation or terminology or lexicography or literacy teaching or language teaching; EAFT Seminar Dublin30
TermTrain Workshop March 2006 Pretoria Copyright JC Roux31 Other Frameworks: Networking language resources in Africa: Future plans and proposals J ustus Roux Stellenbosch University Centre for Language and Speech Technology
Top – Down Initiatives National Government Commitment : Technology / Multilingualism 2000 IT / HLT Steering Com 2002 Ministerial Advisory Panel on HLT 2003 HLT Task Team for implementation National Lexicography UnitsPheripheral State Information Technology Agency (SITA) & CPSI E-government Gateway (Multilingual) Standards South Africa STANSA 37 Terminology and other resources Bottom – Up Initiatives South African Universities National Research Foundation NRF African Lang Association SIG Council for Scientific & Industrial Research CSIR / MERAKA
POTENTIAL MODEL FOR RESOURCE CENTRE IN HUMAN LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGIES IN SOUTH AFRICA Central co-ordination hub Interlinking development nodes at expert centres Sharing model Copyright JC Roux
Identification of multilingual digital text and speech resources in different sectors. Negotiations / Contracts Software development: Tools for annotation / mark-up data management etc Training (Non-formal) of annotators / database managers Meraka University C University B University A Resources and Expertise to feed into National Lexicographic Units (NLUs) Government Depts HLT–products for E-Gateway (via SITA) Academic research and development Private sector ICT apps – telecoms e-commerce News Media SABC Archives Nat & Prov Parliaments National Resource Centre for Human Language Technologies (VIRTUAL) Annotation / Mark-up of Digital Text and Speech Resources (Fixed standards) GOVERNANCE NRF / DAC / DST SECRETARIAT: OPERATIONS Central planning & Co-ordination, Consultation, Database Management Resource backup, Marketing DAC HLT UNIT All Gov Depts Publishing Houses NLS Terminology Services SITA
36 Multilingual terminology process 11 Official languages English powerful language – rich in terminology Other official languages- status has to be elevated – terminologies have to be developed Terminology development takes place within the context of the subject field
37 Developing terminologies for developing languages Multilingual terminology collections for developed languages match existing equivalents Developing terminology for developing languages requires interactive collaboration between linguists and subject specialists to find suitable equivalents
Developing terminologies for developing languages Developed language with well established terms in a subject field is used as source language In situations of language disparity the most prominent need is to have translation equivalents EAFT Seminar Dublin38
39 Secondary term creation An interactive consultative process of linguists, terminologists and subject specialists working together Many challenges have to be successfully managed – language & human resources Term recognition part of the overall picture of processing terminological data
Different steps in developing terminology Process which entails two major phases Ground text production Target text production EAFT Seminar Dublin40
41 SOURCE TEXT PRODUCTION Planning the project (target users; demarcation of subject field; needs of the target users; typology; identification of source material) Process of term harvesting Documentation of terminological data Explanations/definitions (why?)
42 SOURCE TEXT PRODUCTION (continued) Consulting available sources Ordering data into workable formats Collaborating with subject specialists in source text committees Editing and proofreading Work lists
43 TARGET TEXT PRODUCTION Collaboration with subject specialists and linguists (speakers of the target language) Establishing terminology committees The process of providing equivalents for the target language - discussing terms at regular meetings of the terminology committee
44 TARGET TEXT PRODUCTION (Continued) Detailed record (minutes) reflecting decisions about terms at terminology meetings Updating the database Proofreading & editing Printing & publication of end product
EAFT Seminar Dublin45 2) Projects & Examples "Telephone Interpreting Service for South Africa" (TISSA) – initiative of the NLS within the Department of Arts and Culture (DAC) and jointly funded by the Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB).
Example HLT Applications Telephone based information systems (automated) Tourism & Travel: Hotel booking systems (AST project); train, air, bus schedules Health services: First level medical help lines, Aids hotlines, TB hotlines Public services: Applications for pensions, travel documents, car registrations; telephone accounts, telephone number enquiries Copyright JC Roux
Interactive voice driven information / transaction system Xhosa SA English Afrikaans Zulu Southern Sotho Speech recognition Natural language understanding Dialogue control Speech synthesis Data- base Access information Request in language X Recognised utterance System response Answer in language X Retrieve information Copyright JC Roux
EAFT Seminar Dublin48 Examples ICT & HLT... e.g. spellcheckers: The Centre for Text Technology at the North West University in South Africa has released four new spellcheckers in indigenous languages – Setswana, isiZulu, isiXhosa and Sesotho sa Leboa.
EAFT Seminar Dublin49 University Example project performed by the Unit for isiXhosa in Stellenbosch University's Language Centre: to develop isiXhosa as an academic language. Mr Pumlani Sibula – head of the unit.
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Training & Awareness September 2005 in Johannesburg: training within the framework of awareness raising event Advancing multilingualism through terminology development sponsored by the Department of Arts and Culture of South Africa four-days Training course on the basic principles of terminology and terminography, (project)management and terminology market(s) EAFT Seminar Dublin51
EAFT Seminar Dublin52 TermTrain Another piece of the puzzle of terminology activities in RSA: TermTrain Overall goal: To perform a train-the-trainer pilot project for capacity-building in the field of specialized language and specialized knowledge for language communities in Africa. Target groups: subject advisors and curriculum facilitators on behalf of Governmental departments.
EAFT Seminar Dublin53 What is TermTrain? Full project name: Design and implementation of practice oriented terminology trainings for two groups of information professionals: 1) ICT trainers and 2) language trainers in language communities of Africa (TermTrain)
EAFT Seminar Dublin54 What is TermTrain? A pilot project for capacity-building in African countries co-financed by UNESCO's intergovernmental Programme Information for All (IFAP) and project partners initiated and managed by TermNet Further information: