2 Energy flow in the Ecosystem Life depends on the sun in a process called photosynthesisPlants, algae and some bacteria capture solar energy and with Carbon Dioxide CO2 and Water H2O make Oxygen O2 and sugar or glucose C6H12O66CO2 + 6H2O + sun = C6H12O6 + 6O2All organisms ultimately get their energy from the sun
3 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight & chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 6O2 Energy Flow Through an EcosystemBegins with the SUNPhotosynthesis6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight & chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 6O2
4 Producers use most of the energy they make for themselves. Organisms that can make glucose during photosynthesis are calledProducers use most of the energy they make for themselves.
5 The energy that is not used by producers can be passed on to organisms that cannot make their own energy.
6 Organisms that cannot make their own energy CONSUMERSOrganisms that cannot make their own energy
7 Consumers eat producers to get energy: Most of the energy is used by the consumer but some of the energy moves into the atmosphere as heat.Consumers eat producers to get energy:Herbivores- eat plantsOmnivores – eatPlants and animalsCarnivores – eat animals
8 An Exception to the Rule: Deep Ocean EcosystemsHydrothermal VentBacteria use HydrogenSulfide from the hotwater to make theirown foodThus they are producers!
9 Decomposers Breaks down dead organisms in an ecosystem and returns nutrients tosoil, water and airBacteria and Fungi
10 Cellular Respiration Burning the Fuel CELLULAR RESPIRATION is the chemical reaction that releases the energy in glucoseExcess energy is stored as fat6O2 + C6H12O6 -->> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
11 Food Webs: Are interconnected food chains They show the feeding relationships in an ecosystem
12 FOOD CHAIN – shows the transfer of energy from the sun to producer to primary consumer then to higher order consumers
13 Food Chains Show Available Energy TrophicLevels
14 Energy PyramidAmount of available energy decreases for higher consumersAmount of available energy decreases down the food chainIt takes a large number of producers to support a small number of primary consumersIt takes a large number of primary consumers to support a small number of secondary consumers
15 Envi Sci 1/19/11 Stamp then go over food chain/web worksheet Case Study pageFinish up notes…Tomorrow Library. Biome Project!!
16 The Cycling of Materials Carbon CycleCycled between the atmosphere, land, water and organismsCarbon is the basic building block for all living organismsIt is moved through the atmosphere by plants/animals in CO2/O2 exchange through breathing and photosynthesisLarge carbon deposits exist in the oceans and soil from dead organisms in the form of carbonates or carbon sinks of limestone
17 How Humans Affect the Carbon Cycle When we burn fossil fuels we release carbon into the atmosphereIn /3 of all carbon dioxide emitted in the US was from motor vehicles6 Billion metric tons of carbon a year released as CO2 into the atmosphere50% of this remains in the atmosphere which contributes to global warming1 Billion metric tons of CO2 are dissolved into the ocean – carbon sinkPlants absorb the remaining CO2
19 Nitrogen CycleAlthough the atmosphere is 78% organisms cannot utilize nitrogen in that formNitrogen Fixing Bacteria – alter the Nitrogen to make it usable for all organismsThis bacteria lives on nodules of rootsNitrogen is essential for plant growth, obtained through soilNitrogen can be found in all waste products of animals
23 Acid PrecipitationWhen fuel is burned, large amounts of nitric oxide is release into the atmosphere.In the air, nitric oxide can combine with oxygen and water vapor to form nitric acid.Dissolved in rain or snow, the nitric acid falls as acid precipitation.
24 Fertilizers and the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycles Excess fertilizer causes excess nitrogen and phosphorus can cause rapid growth of algae.Excess algae can deplete an aquatic ecosystem of important nutrients such as oxygen, on which fish and other aquatic organisms depend.
25 Ecological succession is a gradual process of change and replacement of the types of species in a community.Primary succession is a type of succession that occurs on a surface where no ecosystem existed beforeSecondary succession occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existed. can occur in ecosystems that have been disturbed or disrupted by humans, animals, or by natural process such as storms, floods, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions.
26 A pioneer species is a species that colonizes an uninhabited area and that starts an ecological cycle in which many other species become establishedA climax community is the final, stable community in equilibrium with the environment.
28 Succession Collage Create a scenario: Primary Succession – initial growth (new volcano, island, receding sea)Secondary Succession – calamity, disaster natural or man madeCut out pictures of your area to represent each stage of successionDescribe each stage and give a rationale for it
29 Ecological Succession Primary succession can occuron new islands created by volcanic eruptionsin areas exposed when a glacier retreatsany other surface that has not previously supported lifePrimary succession is much slower than secondary succession. This is because it begins where there is no soil.The first pioneer species to colonize bare rock will probably be bacteria and lichens, which can live without soil.The growth of lichens breaks down the rock, which with the action of water, begins to form soil.