Presentation on theme: "Course Overview and Introduction CS 4251: Computer Networking II Nick Feamster Spring 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Course Overview and Introduction CS 4251: Computer Networking II Nick Feamster Spring 2008
Goals You have presumably already learned the basics, so we will focus on… Depth –More in-depth treatment of various topics Hands-on experience and skills –Testbeds: Emulab, PlanetLab, VINI –Tools: Scriptroute, Click, XORP –Analysis of real traces
Goals Design Experience and Insights –`Internet was based on design priorities Applications and requirements have changed You will gain experience re-evaluating design decisions and changing protocols –Many recurring design tricks Tree forming Layering Resource allocation and sharing Naming
Logistics Course Web page –http://www.gtnoise.net/classes/cs4251/fall_2008/http://www.gtnoise.net/classes/cs4251/fall_2008/ –Check this page regularly for updates to the syllabus, assignments, readings, etc. Course mailing list –Sign up now/today if you are not already on it –http://www.gtnoise.net/mailman/listinfo/cs4251http://www.gtnoise.net/mailman/listinfo/cs4251
Who Am I? Nick Feamster –Assistant Professor –Networking: Operations and Security Office: Klaus 3348 Email address: on web page; use subject CS 4251 Office Hours: Wednesday, 2-3 p.m., by appt
Overview of Lectures Holistic approach Lectures organized by theme –Tree forming/path finding –Layering –Resource allocation and sharing –Naming Textbook reading, research papers, current events –Read the readings before class! –Historically, many things covered in class that are not in texts
Lecture Structure: User-Generated One strongly positive review of last years course: just in time topics This year: Formalize this notion –Every Friday: Post a link to the course wiki (link soon) with a paper and one-line topic summary –Voting over weekend –Discuss paper in second half of Wednesday lecture I will do this, too
Networking in Current Events Threats to the Internets naming system Network Neutrality
Other Things Youll Learn How does BitTorrent find your file? How does the Georgia Tech wireless network allow you to roam across campus with the same IP address? How do ISPs connect to one another? –Protocols, Economics, … What could you do with two (or more) Internet connections at home?
Still More Things Youll Learn How many bits can you push over a physical channel? –How can you use encoding to increase this? Whats inside a router? –Function, power issues, trends (e.g., programmability) Performance guarantees (e.g., telephony, video)? Can a networks resources be subdivided?
Still More Things Youll Learn Are we running out of IP addresses? Who cares, and how can we combat this? How do we reduce power utilization in data centers? What are the bad guys doing? Can we stop unwanted traffic? How do we make it easier to run the network? How do we make the network go faster? Why is it so hard to figure out whats wrong? Social networks…?
Class Components and Grading Problem sets (20%) –Paper and pencil –First assignment: September 3 Hands-on Assignments (30%) –Experience with tools and traces 2 Quizzes (25%) –Quiz: March 3 –Final: will set date soon (perhaps last week of class) 1 Project (25%) –TBD. Work in groups. Programming/analysis/etc. –Most likely: Pict from a list, or propose your own Late policy: Maximum of 72 hours late throughout the term
Collaboration Policy See the Georgia Tech Honor Code Working together on assignments is fine, but you must turn in your own assignments, and ultimately write your own code, analysis, etc.
Who are you? Why are you taking this class? –What do you hope to learn? –(What have you learned already) What do you want out of a class project? Did you take 3251?
Themes Routing: Trees and Paths The Protocol Stack: Protocols and Layering Resource Allocation Naming Trust Other themes –Hierarchy –Caching –Randomization
Georgia Tech The Internet: A Network of Networks Comcast Abilene AT&T Cogent Autonomous Systems (ASes) Interconnected of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) provide data communications services –Networks are connected using routers that support communication in a hierarchical fashion –Often need other special devices at the boundaries for security, accounting, … Hosts and networks have to follow a common set of rules (protocols)
Challenges Scale: 100,000,000s of hosts Heterogeneity: –25,000+ administrative domains (competing!) –Thousands of applications –Lots of users Diversity of network technologies and media Security: Adversarial environment
Trends and Open Problems Reducing power consumption –E.g., in data centers Making networks easier to manage Improving trust/identity in networks –Spam, phishing attacks, etc. Policy-related issues (net neutrality) Programmability in routers/switches
Computing Routes To deal with large scale, Internet routing employs hierarchy Internet Service Providers connect to one another with interdomain routing protocols (BGP) –ISPs have business relationships with one another ISPs have PoPs that are connected with intradomain routing protocols
Gateways: Routers and Switches Interconnect nodes to nodes –And networks to networks No state about ongoing connections –Stateless packet switches We can also think of your home router/NAT as performing the function of a gateway Home Network Internet 192.168.1.51 192.168.1.52 220.127.116.11:50878 18.104.22.168:50879 (more on NATs in lecture 17)
Protocols: Interconnection The syntax and semantics by which hosts and nodes agree on how to talk –Must be standardized and agreed upon by all parties –Standardization process IETF Requests for Comments (RFC) De-facto standards Format of messages Expectations for message delivery
Layering Helps manage complexity Each layer: –Relies on services from layer below –Provides services to layer above For example: IP (network) layer –IP relies on connectivity to next hop, access to medium –IP provides a datagram service Best effort delivery Packets may be lost, corrupted, reordered, etc. –Layers on top of IP (e.g., TCP) may guarantee reliable, in-order delivery
Layering Mechanism: Encapsulation This can be more complex Example: Network layers can be encapsulated within another network layer Get index.html Connection ID Source/Destination Link Address User AUser B Application (message) Transport (segment) Network (datagram) Link (frame)
The Internet Protocol Stack Need to interconnect many existing networks Hide underlying technology from applications Decisions –Network provides minimal functionality –IP as the Narrow waist Technology Applications email WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP ethernet PPP… CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio...
The Narrow Waist Facilitates interconnection and interoperability IP over anything, anything over IP –Has allowed for much innovation both above and below the IP layer of the stack –Any device with an IP stack can get on the Internet Drawback: very difficult to make changes to IP
How? Multiplexing –Switched network –Party A gets resources sometimes –Party B gets them sometimes Interior nodes (Routers or Switches) arbitrate access to resources
Circuit Switching Resources are reserved Source first establishes a connection (circuit) to the destination Source sends the data over the circuit –Constant transmission rate Example: telephone network –Early early versions: Human-mediated switches. –Early versions: End-to-end electrical connection –Today: Virtual circuits or lambda switching
Resource Sharing in Circuit-Switched Networks Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM) –Link dedicates a frequency to each connection –Width of this frequency band is called bandwidth –We will discuss the capacity in Lecture 10 Time-Division Multiplexing –Each circuit gets all of the bandwidth on a link for brief periods of time
Circuit Switching Advantages –Fast and simple data transfer, once the circuit has been established –Predictable performance since the circuit provides isolation from other users Guaranteed bandwidth Disadvantages –What about bursty traffic? –Users with differing needs for bandwidth –What if all resources are allocated?
Packet Switching Resources are not reserved Packets are self-contained –Each has a destination address –Source may have to break up single message Each packet travels independently to the destination host –Routers and switches use the address in the packet to determine how to forward the packets
Resource Sharing: Packet Switching Statistical multiplexing Switches arbitrate between inputs Can send from any input thats ready –Links are never idle when traffic to send –Efficiency! –Requires buffering/queues –Implies a service model/discipline (Lecture 21)
Delay in Packet Switched Networks Four contributors to hop-by-hop delay –Processing: Lookup, etc. (Lectures 6 and 7) –Queueing: Time the packet must wait before being transmitted (Lecture 21) –Transmission: time to push the packet onto the link –Propagation: time for the packet to propagate from A to B End-to-end performance metric: throughput –What (else) affects throughput
Forwarding: Packet-Switched Networks Each packet contains a destination in the header –Much like a postal address on an envelope Each hop (router or switch) inspects the destination address to determine the next hop Will a packet always take the same path? How do the hops know how to forward packets?