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Human Sexuality Sexual Anatomy

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Presentation on theme: "Human Sexuality Sexual Anatomy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Sexuality Sexual Anatomy
Nur 150 Human Sexuality Sexual Anatomy

2 Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology

3 Betty Dodson

4 Increases sexual comfort
Genital Self-Exam Increases sexual comfort Monitor for changes related to health concerns

5 Routine self-examination is an aspect of preventive health care.

6 The Vulva External female genitalia Mons veneris: “mound of Venus” Roman goddess of love and beauty Labia majora & minora

7 The Vulva The structures and variations of the vulva: (a) external structures and (b-d) different shapes and colors.

8 Only function = sexual arousal
The Clitoris Analogous to penis Only function = sexual arousal Clitoral stimulation most common way women achieve orgasm Consider female genital mutilation

9 The Underlying Structures of the Vulva

10 Vestibule (inside the labia minora)
The Vulva Vestibule (inside the labia minora) Urethral opening Vaginal introitus (opening) Hymen Perineum Episiotomy

11 Underlying Structures
Vestibular bulbs Bartholin’s glands Pelvic floor muscles Kegel exercises: conscious, voluntary engagement of muscles increases health, strength, blood flow and pleasure During arousal and orgasm these muscles involuntarily contract

12 Kegel excercise

13 Underlying Structures
The underlying muscles of the vulva. These muscles can be strengthened using the Kegel exercises described in the text.

14 Internal Structures: Vagina
3 layers: mucous, muscle, fibrous Arousal and vaginal lubrication or transudation Lubrication changes vaginal ph and increases pleasure Increased blood flow causes swelling of labia and vaginal opening, which acts like brake pads gripping penis upon insertion Clitoral glans pulls back towards pubic bone, retracting under its hood (protecting itself against direct stimulation) Grafenberg (G) spot: anterior wall of vagina, a system of ducts and glands that surround the urethra Secretions & chemical balance: body naturally creates a healthy balance

15 Internal Female Sexual Anatomy

16 Internal Structures Cervix Uterus Fallopian tubes Ovaries
3 layers and fundus (top) Perimetrium Myometrium Endometrium-nourishes zygote (united sperm and egg) Fallopian tubes Fimbriae: fingerlike ends of the fallopian tubes where the released ovum enters Ovaries About the size and shape of an almond Up to 472,000 immature ova at birth 400 mature in lifetime Ovulation = release of ovum

17 Myths and negative attitudes Menarche (initial onset)
Menstruation Myths and negative attitudes Menarche (initial onset) Age 11-15 Related to heredity, health, altitude Average female: if years old, for 5 days every 28 days, then average woman spends 7 years of her life menstruating

18 Menstrual Physiology Flow lasts from 2 to 6 days Volume varies from 6 to 8 ounces Duration varies 24 to 42 days Menstrual synchrony with moon phases and other close women

19 Hypothalamus releases GnRH that stimulates pituitary
The Menstrual Cycle Hypothalamus releases GnRH that stimulates pituitary Pituitary produces Follicle Stimulating Hormone Lutenizing Hormone Negative feedback mechanism

20 Three Phases of The Menstrual Cycle
Shedding of endometrium Proliferative Thickening of endometrium, follicle maturation & ovulation Secretory Corpus luteum development, futher thickening of endometrium

21 Menstrual Cycle Problems
Premenstrual syndrome Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Dysmenorrhea = painful menses Amenorrhea = no menses Self-help for menstrual symptoms exerise Nutrition- cutting back sugar, caffeine, and nicotine Orgasm can relieve cramps Toxic shock syndrome

22 Terms Related to Menopause
Climacteric Physiological changes during transition period of fertility to infertility Peri-menopause Time before menopause when estrogen is decreasing Menopause Permanent cessation of menstruation

23 Symptoms vary from mild to strong Amenorrhea, then menopause
Menopausal Symptoms Symptoms vary from mild to strong Amenorrhea, then menopause Hot flashes or warm spells Dysregulation of body temp Night sweats, interrupted sleep Headaches, poor concentration Depression, anxiety

24 Hormone Therapy Benefits and problems from hormone therapy.

25 Gynecological Health Concerns
Urinary tract infections Vaginal infections Pap smear screens for cervical cancer Hysterectomy or oophorectomy Most frequently performed U.S. operation More frequently performed on low income, less educated women who perhaps had less preventative heacare Non-surgical options

26 The Breast Secondary sex characteristics Mammary glands produce milk Areola is darker area Nipple is in center of areola & has openings for milk Depression, anxiety

27 Breast size and shape vary from woman to woman.

28 Breast size and shape vary from woman to woman.

29 Breast size and shape vary from woman to woman.

30 Cross-Section of Breast
Cross-section front and side views of the female breast.

31 Breast Health Breast Lumps Breast cancer Cysts (fluid-filled sacs)
Fibroadenomas (solid, round, benign tumors) Malignant tumor Breast cancer Treatments Risk factors Reconstructive breast surgery Benefits of early detection & treatment

32 FGM

33 Hymen


35 Hymen Variations

36 Clitoris


38 Figure 4.2: The underlying structures of the vulva.
Fig. 4-2, p. 82

39 Hymen

40 Figure 4. 3: The underlying muscles of the vulva
Figure 4.3: The underlying muscles of the vulva. These muscles can be strengthened by using the Kegel exercises described in the Your Sexual Health box. Fig. 4-3, p. 85

41 The speculum opens the walls of the vaginal canal.

42 Table 4-2, p. 103

43 Table 4-3, p. 106


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