13Underlying Structures The underlying muscles of the vulva. These muscles can be strengthened using the Kegel exercises described in the text.
14Internal Structures: Vagina 3 layers: mucous, muscle, fibrousArousal and vaginal lubrication or transudationLubrication changes vaginal ph and increases pleasureIncreased blood flow causes swelling of labia and vaginal opening, which acts like brake pads gripping penis upon insertionClitoral glans pulls back towards pubic bone, retracting under its hood (protecting itself against direct stimulation)Grafenberg (G) spot: anterior wall of vagina, a system of ducts and glands that surround the urethraSecretions & chemical balance: body naturally creates a healthy balance
16Internal Structures Cervix Uterus Fallopian tubes Ovaries 3 layers and fundus (top)PerimetriumMyometriumEndometrium-nourishes zygote (united sperm and egg)Fallopian tubesFimbriae: fingerlike ends of the fallopian tubes where the released ovum entersOvariesAbout the size and shape of an almondUp to 472,000 immature ova at birth400 mature in lifetimeOvulation = release of ovum
17Myths and negative attitudes Menarche (initial onset) MenstruationMyths and negative attitudesMenarche (initial onset)Age 11-15Related to heredity, health, altitudeAverage female: if years old, for 5 days every 28 days, then average woman spends 7 years of her life menstruating
18Menstrual PhysiologyFlow lasts from 2 to 6 daysVolume varies from 6 to 8 ouncesDuration varies 24 to 42 daysMenstrual synchrony with moon phases and other close women
19Hypothalamus releases GnRH that stimulates pituitary The Menstrual CycleHypothalamus releases GnRH that stimulates pituitaryPituitary producesFollicle Stimulating HormoneLutenizing HormoneNegative feedback mechanism
20Three Phases of The Menstrual Cycle Shedding of endometriumProliferativeThickening of endometrium, follicle maturation & ovulationSecretoryCorpus luteum development, futher thickening of endometrium
21Menstrual Cycle Problems Premenstrual syndromePremenstrual Dysphoric DisorderDysmenorrhea = painful mensesAmenorrhea = no mensesSelf-help for menstrual symptomsexeriseNutrition- cutting back sugar, caffeine, and nicotineOrgasm can relieve crampsToxic shock syndrome
22Terms Related to Menopause ClimactericPhysiological changes during transition period of fertility to infertilityPeri-menopauseTime before menopause when estrogen is decreasingMenopausePermanent cessation of menstruation
23Symptoms vary from mild to strong Amenorrhea, then menopause Menopausal SymptomsSymptoms vary from mild to strongAmenorrhea, then menopauseHot flashes or warm spellsDysregulation of body tempNight sweats, interrupted sleepHeadaches, poor concentrationDepression, anxiety
24Hormone TherapyBenefits and problems from hormone therapy.
25Gynecological Health Concerns Urinary tract infectionsVaginal infectionsPap smear screens for cervical cancerHysterectomy or oophorectomyMost frequently performed U.S. operationMore frequently performed on low income, less educated women who perhaps had less preventative heacareNon-surgical options
26The BreastSecondary sex characteristicsMammary glands produce milkAreola is darker areaNipple is in center of areola & has openings for milkDepression, anxiety
30Cross-Section of Breast Cross-section front and side views of the female breast.
31Breast Health Breast Lumps Breast cancer Cysts (fluid-filled sacs) Fibroadenomas (solid, round, benign tumors)Malignant tumorBreast cancerTreatmentsRisk factorsReconstructive breast surgeryBenefits of early detection & treatment
40Figure 4. 3: The underlying muscles of the vulva Figure 4.3: The underlying muscles of the vulva. These muscles can be strengthened by using the Kegel exercises described in the Your Sexual Health box.Fig. 4-3, p. 85
41The speculum opens the walls of the vaginal canal.