Presentation on theme: "B. Aleksandrov Odessa Branch, Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine."— Presentation transcript:
B. Aleksandrov Odessa Branch, Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
There are 142 terrestrial, 53 freshwater, and 43 marine ecoregions in the World. The Black Sea is part of the Mediterranean ecoregion. Progressive methodological approach of forming of protected areas was realized in practical nature protection conception: Pan European Ecological Network with special task on forming of marine ecological network of Europe (European Coastal Marina Ecological Network) in 1999.
Example of marine corridor of the Pan European ecological network in south-east Europe
The total protected area of the Black Sea amounts to 68 263 км 2, but it differs in area in each country. The largest number of MPAs of different status is concentrated in Ukraine which has a maximum length of coastline – 1 628 km or 37% and 55 750 km 2 or 57% of the total Black Sea shelf area.
Review of ecological networks and corridors is one of the technical guidance manual for protected area systems Bennett G. & Mulongoy K.J. Review of experience with ecological networks, corridors and buffer zones.- Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.- Montreal, 2006.- Technical Series No. 23.- 100pp. Guiding principles for the Establishment of Marine Protected Areas in the Black Sea (approve CBD AG in 2008)
The aim of this study is to work out the methodology of a quantitative approach determining the biological value of marine aquatic areas (lagoons, bays etc.) for forming ecological corridors and determination of order of creation of new or expansions of existent МPАs (on example of marine waterbodies of Ukraine).
Peculiarities of aquatic ecosystems: 1. Concentration of life in coastal and shelf area to the depth of solar penetration. 2. Definite advantage in selection of the protected areas according to benthic biocenoses, as those bound with the landscape (in contrast to pelagic one).
Title There were singled out 34 different aquatic objects in Ukrainian part of the Black Sea coast: 13 – Bays, 13 – limans (estuaries), 2 – lagoons, 2 – lakes, 1 – Delta (Danube), 1 – Island (Zmeiny), 1 – open shelf area, 1 – strait (Kerch). K RDB – total number of Red Data Book species, K EAM – ecological activity of macrophytes, K BB – total number of benthic biocoenoses, K MZB – total number of macrozoobentic species, K P/B – ratio between plankton and benthos biomass, K PP – primary production of phytoplankton, K AI – integrated estimation of anthropogenic impact. Key characteristics of aquatic objects: К ƒ = (K i min a ) 0,5 · ( K 1 a1 · K 2 a2 · … · K n an ) 1/2n К ƒ - integrated index of biological significance of aquatic object; К 1, К 2, К n – measure of key characteristics in each aquatic object; а 1, а 2, а n – weight coefficient of each key characteristics; n – number of key characteristics.
Physical and chemical features (distribution of nutrient): Biological features (phytoplankton and zooplankton communities; macro-algae and invertebrate bottom fauna; status of species). Other features (chemicals, sediments contamination, hotspots, health issues etc.). Habitat types (structure and substrata composition of the seabed): 5 ecotones - separate analyses. K BB – total number of benthic biocoenoses, K AI – integrated estimation of anthropogenic impact K RDB – total number of Red Data Book species, K MZB – total number of macrozoobentic species, K P/B – ratio between plankton and benthos biomass, K PP – primary production of phytoplankton, K EAM – ecological activity of macrophytes. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (Annex III, Table 1)
K AI – integrated estimation of anthropogenic impact Zaitsev Yu. Littoral concentration of life in the Black Sea area and coastal management requirements // Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment.- 2006.- Vol. 12.- P. 113-128. Generalized matrix of expert assessments of ecological processes in the Black Sea Coastal Zone Response Stress Changes of life conditionsBiological and general changes Sali nity Curren ts Tran spare ncy Poll utio n Tro phi city Bott om sedi ment s Oxy gen cont ent Dist urba nc e Conc entra tion Biol ogic al diver sity. Bott om hypo xia Stoc ks Heal t risks Mari ne food qulit y ценн ость Aest hetic quali ties I Fishing 443341214231343 Mimimg 432231214231343 Industrial wastes 142133211111111 II Pesticides 442232221111111 Soil erosion 441231233231222 Agricultural runoff 341131121211111 III Residual foods 442153234434332 Genetic degeneration 444444444245444 IV Ports development 422131111333233 Deepening, Dumping 422221214233343 Ballast waters and exotic species 44434444434444 Shipwrecks 443234431144333 27 – stress factors, 15 types of effect
V Urban sewage 342132231111112 Rain waters 332233331233222 VI Addition of sand 443441434142244 Coast protection constructions 423232224644343 VII Dams 334444424441444 Reservoirs 334444424441444 VIII Resort development 433233323344334 Resort sewage 432233222233222 Recreational activities 434344314444444 IX Nature conservation 455766674767777 Environmental control 455666676667777 Artificial reefs 436666774766667 X Environmental education 666666666666667 Field trips 666666666666667 Books, posters, films 666666666666667 …… 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 There are 10 kinds of anthropogenic impacts with different influence on biological characteristics of aquatic ecosystems (positive or negative) NegativePositive
Average significance of the index of aquatic ecosystem changes under the influence of different types of anthropogenic impacts Types*Antropogenic impacts Signifi- cance** I Fishing 2,800 Miming 2,533 Industrial wastes 1,600 II Pesticides 1,867 Soil erosion 2,333 Agricultural runoff 1,600 IIIResidual foods 3,133 Genetic degeneration 3,933 IV Ports development 2,200 Deepening, Dumping 2,533 Ballast waters and exotic species 3,857 Shipwrecks 3,067 VUrban sewage 1,867 Rain waters 2,467 VIAddition of sand3,200 Coast protection constructions3,200 VIIDams3,533 Reservoirs3,533 VIII Resort development3,133 Resort sewage2,467 Recreational activities3,600 IX Nature conservation6,067 Environmental control6,067 Artificial reefs5,800 X Environmental education6,067 Field trips6,067 Books, posters, films6,067 *Types of impact: I. Industry. II. Agriculture. III. Pisciculture. IV. Sea transport. V. Municipal economy. VI. Coast protection. VII. Hydro-power Engineering. VIII. Tourism, Resorts. IX. Nature Conservation. X. Environmental Education and Environmental Ethics.
Water body Impact Factors IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIIIIXX Fishing Mimimg Industrial wastes Pesticides Soil erosion Agricultural runoff Residual foods Genetic degeneration Ports development Deepening, Dumping Ballast waters and exotic species Shipwrecks Urban sewage Rain waters Addition of sand Coast protection constructions Dams Reservoirs Resort development Resort sewage Recreational activities Nature conservation Environmental control Artificial reefs Environmental education Field trips Books, posters, films 1Danube delta mouth++++++++++++++ 2Zhebrianskaya bay+++++++++++++ 3Zmiinyi island (slopes)++++++ 4Sasyk lake+++++++++++++++ 5Tuzla group limans++++++++++++ 6Shabolatskiy liman+++++++++++++ 7Dniester liman++++++++++++++++++ 8Zernovs phyllophora field+++ 9Sukhoy liman++++++++++++++++++ 10Odessa bay++++++++++++++++++++++++ 11Khadjibeiskiy liman+++++++++++++ 12Kuyalnitskiy liman++++++++++++++ 13Dofinovskiy liman+++++++++++ 14Grigorevskiy liman+++++++++??++++++++ 15Tiligulskiy liman++++++??++++++++ 16Berezanskiy liman+++++??++++ 17Dnieper-and-Bug liman+++++??++++++????+++++++++ 18Yegorlykskiy inlet+??++?+++ 19Tendrovskiy inlet++++++ 20Karkinitskiy inlet++++++++++++++++++ 21Donuzlav lake++++++++++++++++ 22Kalamytskiy inlet+++++++++++++++++++ 23Sevastopol bays+++++++++++++++++++ 24Karadag coast++++++++++++ 25Feodosiya inlet+++++++++++++++++++ 26Kerch Strait++++++++++++++++++++ 27Central Sivash+++++++++ 28Eastern Sivash++++++++++ 29Utlyukskiy liman++++++++++++ 30Molochniy liman+++++++++++++ 31Obitochnaya inlet++++++++++++++ 32Berdianskiy inlet+ + +++++++++++++++ 33Belosarayskiy inlet+++++++++++ 34Taganrogskiy inlet+ + ++++++++++++++ Distribution of anthropogenic impact factors in Ukrainian coastal waters of the Black and Azov Seas
Values of К РР (primary productions) was determined by oxygen and radiocarbon methods, or chlorophyll « а » content were estimated in the same units (mg О 2 · l -1 · d -1 ) according to the formula: К РР = 1 - lg[8,5 / (8,5 - K average )] where K average - the value of the characteristic of a given water body. Index of ecological activity of macrophytes (К EAМ ) was determining as average of specific surface of the first three dominant species (Minicheva, 1998, Minicheva et al., 2003) on a formula: К EAМ = 10 · S/W average where - S/W average - arithmetical mean to the specific surface (S is area of surface and W is biomass of aquatic plants) of three dominant species of macrophytobenthos in each water body. Numeral value К P/B was determined for water column by above square meter of bottom surface, taking into account the middle depth of water body on a formula: К P/B = 1 - lg (1000 · K average ) / 5 where K average - the value of the characteristic of a given water body. All characteristics of biological diversity of the investigated water bodies (K MZB, K BB and K RDB were determined on formula: К i = K average / K max where K average - the value of the characteristic of a given water body, K max - the maximum possible value in a given ecotone. Identification of quantities characteristics of aquatic water bodies
Characteristics RDBEAМBB MZBP/BРР AI RDB 0,240,51 0,48-0,09-0,03 0,31 EAМ 0,240,43 0,37-0,22-0,18 0,40 Weight coefficients of characteristics (a i ) a= 0,9a= 0,7a= 0,9 a= 0,6a= 0,5 a= 0,8 Matrix of cross-correlation connection of the chosen initial biological parameters (characteristics) of aquatic ecosystems for determination of their weight coefficients (a i ) Significant coefficients of cross-correlation connection at 5% confidence level (k= 32) mark in bold. Denotation: RDB - number of Red Data Book species; EAМ - index of ecological activity of macrophytes; BB - number of benthic biocenoses; MZB - total number of macrozoobenthos species; P/B - ratio of total plankton and benthos biomass; РР - gross primary products of phytoplankton; AI – integrated antropogenic impact.
Title According EU Habitat Directive, NATURA-2000 (1992) and special activity of Secretariat of the BS Commission in the Black Sea have been singled out Coastal margin ecotones 1.Sedimentary shores 2.Rocky shores 3.Coastal brackish/saline lagoons 4.Estuaries and deltas 5.Wetlands and salt marshes Pelagic habitats (water column) 1.Neritic 2.Open sea Benthic habitats (37 biocenosis) 1.Supralittoral rock (2) 2.Supralittoral sand (1) 3.Mediolittoral rock (2) 4.Mediolittoral sand and muddy sands (2) 5.Sublittoral rock/other hard substrata (9) 6.Sublittoral sediments (21)
Wetlands and saltmarshes Rocky shores Sedimentary shores Estuaries and deltas Coastal brackish/saline lagoons Coastal margin ecotones
Biotope (habitat) Average depth, m Biocenoses Average number of macrozo- obenthos species Average number, ind·m -2 Average biomass, g·m -2 Hard substrates (stones, rocks, etc.) 3 Mytilus galloprovincialis, Balanus improvises 554488913489 Sandy sediments (sand, mud, clay) 9 Donacilla cornea, Nana neritea, Lentidium mediterraneum, Chamelea gallina 4291770 Sandy-mud sediments23 Mya arenaria, Mytilaster lineatus, Neanthes succinea, Gouldia minima, Upogebia pusilla 43147650 Muddy sediments 46 Melinna palmate, Abra nitida, Spisula subtrunca- ta, M. galloprovincialis, Nephtys hombergii, Modiolus phaseolinus 44103937 Comparative characteristics of benthic biotopes in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
All analyzable characteristics are interact and the value of К ƒ is combine (integrate) all of them for every concrete aquatic object. Selection of methods of determination of characteristics (K i ) and their weight (а i ) came true taking into account a necessary condition: 0 < K i 1 and 0 < a i 1. Scale of biological value of aquatic objects 1,000 - 0,800Very high 0.799 - 0,600High 0,599 - 0,400Medium 0,399 - 0,200Low 0,199 - 0,000Very low