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Dan Dascalu, director general, INCD-Microtehnologie

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1 Dan Dascalu, director general, INCD-Microtehnologie
“Convergenta tehnologiilor si dezvoltarea unui nou tip de infrastructuri” Dan Dascalu, director general, INCD-Microtehnologie

2 Convergenta stiintelor si a tehnologiilor in PC7
Convergenta stiintelor? De fapt o cercetare multidisciplinara. Exista de multa vreme biofizica, biochimie, chimie fizica etc. Convergenta tehnologiilor: apar atunci cand anumite tehnologii patrund intr-un nou domeniu de aplicatii, de fapt un domeniu care isi are deja tehnologiile proprii. Convergenta tehnologiilor in PC7. Micro-nano-bio-info sau micro-nano-bio-cogno. Suprapuneri intre tema ICT (TIC) si NMP, dar si cu tema Health (Sanatate). Aceasta arata interesul exceptional pentru anumite subdomenii.

3 MINOS selection of topics
M-N-O-B: Micro-Nano-Opto-Bio N-M-B: Nano-Micro-Bio M-N-O: Micro-Nano-Opto B-O-N: Bio-Opto-Nano M-B-O: Micro-Bio-Opto Input MINOS DATABASES MINOS selection of topics

4 New! Micro-Opto RF (Microwave, Millimeter Wave) Opto (Photonics) Two laboratories from IMT (former centres of excellence in RELANSIN and MATNANTECH, respectively) Now designed as a common structure: a Centre of excellence of EU in RF and Opto MEMS (MIMOMEMS).

5 A new project was invited for negotiation in Brussels
MIMOMEMS A new project was invited for negotiation in Brussels European Centre of Excellence in Microwave, Millimetre Wave and Optical Devices, based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Advanced Communication Systems and Sensors – MIMOMEMS ►Capacities - Part 4 - Research Potential. Activity: 4.1.Unlocking and developing the research potential in the EU´s convergence regions and outermost regions (REGPOT ) ►Cooperation – Theme 3 - Information & Communication Technologies. Challenge 3: Components, systems, engineering ● The overall aim of the MIMOMEMS project is to bring the research activity in RF and Optical-MEMS at the National Institute for R&D in Microtechnologies (IMT) to the highest European level and create a European Centre of Excellence in Microwave, Millimeter Wave and Optical Devices, based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) for Advanced Communication Systems and Sensors. ● The Centre of Excellence will be created by developing IMT- Bucharest’s existing scientific expertise and capacities and collaborating closely with specialist research groups at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse and FORTH-IESL-MRG in Heraklion.

6 Equipments to be acquired in the MIMOMEMS project
► Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) up to 110 GHz and on wafer measurement facilities in order to upgrade the GHz existing on wafer characterization system ► Frequency synthesiser up to 65GHz ► Au plating facility for semiconductor wafers ►White light interferometer- optical profiling system for research applications ►Near field scanning optical microscope (SNOM)

7 MIMOMEMS ►White light interferometer- optical profiling system for research applications A Sub-nanometer resolution Non-contact measurements by optical interferometry with vertical resolution down to 0.1 nm Fast results Full field 3D measurements in just a few seconds Versatile Reflectivity 1% to 100% : Transparent films (Glass), Silicon, Metal Non-contact measurements All measurements are non destructive, repeatable and require no sample preparation System stability and linearity Measurement are related to wavelength. Highly stable metrology thanks to its design including a capacitive sensor feedback loop in Heraklion. . Examples of different investigations- Fogale – Nanotech web page

8 O perspectiva mai larga
Convergenta tehnologiilor Nu este ceva nou (v. exemple mai departe) Ridica dificultati suplimentare Poate duce la convergenta industriilor (v. exemple mai departe) Un cocktail exploziv: micro-nano-bio In general – noile materiale si tehnologii pot afecta industriile traditionale

9 Convergenta in “tehnologia electronica”
Ultimul deceniu al secolului trecut: convergenta intre industria comunicatiilor si industria calculatoarelor (de fapt tehnica calculatoarelor digitale (cifrice, numerice) a patruns in tehnica comunicatiilor (initial analogica). Astazi avem TIC = tehnologia informatiei si a comunicatiilor (si industria TIC), dar are loc un alt fenomen: convergenta TIC cu “industria media”. Un contraexemplu: TIC se aplica si in constructia automobilului (gasim produse TIC in automobil, pe liniile de fabricatie), dar aceasta nu inseamna convergenta tehnologiilor.

10 Care sunt implicatiile?
Potentialul este enorm, dar apar si o serie de dificultati Necesitatea unei formatii interdisciplinare a specialistilor (de ex. pentru proiectarea unui microsistem electro-mecanic, MEMS). Abordari diferite (paradigme diferite) care ingreuneaza mult colaborarea. Colective “mixte” de cercetare – esentiale pentru formare. Sunt interesate firme de diverse “calibre”, dar ele nu au toate mijloacele necesare (expertiza, dotari) pentru a aborda produse noi cu tehnologii avansate, neconventionale (v. platforma MINAM). Micro-nanofabricatie: accesul firmelor! ... Cel mai practic “One-stop shop”?

11 A new concept for a new era!
An “open” lab is containing various (up-to date) equipments. An equipment may incorporate a immense amount of new knowledge; at the same time it may be seen as a platform for creating, disseminating and using this knowledge (most of it as “know-how”) Open to researchers from other labs Open to researchers from other organizations Laboratory open for companies Loboratory open for education The so-called “knowledge triangle”: research, education, innovation

IMT- Bucharest is coordianting 2 Romanian innovative networks acting in nanooelectronic and nanotechnology area, developing andvanced research, providing services for structuring and characterization at nanoscale and “ hands on training” activities ► RTN-NANOEL: Romanian Technological Network for integration in the European Platform for NANOELectronics (ENIAC) ( ) ► NANOSCALE-CONV: Network of scientific services for nano-scale structuring and characterization, with applications in the development of convergent technologies ( ) The equipments acquisitioned by this networks contributed to the development of a new lab in IMT- Bucharest: NANOSCALE-LAB

13 NANOSCALE-LAB These Networks, for structuring, scientific research services and characterization at nano-scale bring together well known research institutes and academia, spread all over the country, using in common infrastructures, characterization and manufacturing equipments and complementary skills. The new structuring and characterization facilities were created, to promote the advanced of the fundamental nano-knowledge, to strength the scientific, technological and training excellence. This laboratory will become, in fact, a “Centre of nanoscale structuring and characterization”, a “conglomerate” of laboratories with equipments financed from various sources. .

14 NANOSCALE-LAB Specific instruments and equipment available in the lab: ►Atomic Force Microscope, noncommercial model developed by Twente University (the first AFM in Romania- 1994) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) performs high resolution surface morphology investigations Main application consists in 3D surface topography recording and measurement (waviness, roughness, step heights, grains, particles etc) It admits nearly all solid samples, both conductive and nonconductive   Characteristics Maximum scan area: 20m x 20m x, y scanner resolution: 5 nm z resolution: 2 nm Professional software for image processing  (SPIPTM – Image Metrology)        

15 NANOSCALE-LAB Arsenium-dopped single crystal Si surface 20m x 20m scan area; RMS roughness Sq = 37,3 nm AFM 2D and 3D images of a silicon diffrractive structure. Scan area : 20m x 20m 1m x 1m AFM scan of titanium oxide thin film deposited by magnetron sputtering onto silicon. Applications to optical thin films

16 ●Scanning Electron Microscopy TESCAN VEGA 5136 LM
NANOSCALE-LAB A new ►Nanolithography Equipment composed of a SEM and EBL ●Scanning Electron Microscopy TESCAN VEGA 5136 LM Resolution: kV, accelerating voltage 200V-30 kV, electron gun source: tungsten filament, magnification : 13X – X, detectors: SE, BSE, LVSTD. ● PG Elphy Plus from RAITH 6 MHz high-speed pattern generation hardware        

17 Examples of different investigations and tests using EB Nanolitography
NANOSCALE-LAB Examples of different investigations and tests using EB Nanolitography Test of nanolitography: Configurations in PMMA resist for manufacturing subwavelength photonic devices (subwavelength hole arrays for photonic cristals) realised for Photonic Lab of IMT Bucharest

18 Examples of different investigations and tests using EB Nanolitography
NANOSCALE-LAB Examples of different investigations and tests using EB Nanolitography Test of nanolitography: Configurations in PMMA resist for manufacturing Fresnel lens, realised for Photonic Lab of IMT Bucharest

19 Examples TiAu nanostructures obtained by EBL and lift off process
NANOSCALE-LAB Examples TiAu nanostructures obtained by EBL and lift off process SAW structures with operating frequencies in the GHz range. The experiments were developed on AlN and GaN thin films with nano-metric lines for the IDT Two experimental SAW structures with the two IDTs placed “face to face” The design transfer on the wafer was performed using a Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an EBL by direct writing. The result of this process, the nano patterning in PMMA resist 300nm wide and 200 nm high metallic TiAu fingers obtained by lift off technique

20 Examples of nanostructuring using EB Nanolitography
NANOSCALE-LAB Examples of nanostructuring using EB Nanolitography Nanodots (Au on silicon) obtained using EBL and lift-off techniques 50nm diameter nanodots (Au on glass) for nanophotonics applications

21 Examples of nanostructuring using EB Nanolitography
NANOSCALE-LAB Examples of nanostructuring using EB Nanolitography Structures obtained by classical optical lithography Details of the EBL structure Structures obtained by EBL lithography Example of mix and match lithography: optical lithography and EBL .

22 New Equipments in the NANOSCALE- LAB
► SPM - Multifunctional Scanning Probe Microscope NTEGRA Aura  (NT-MDT) has been recently installed It allows operation in air, liquids, low vacuum (10-2 torr) and controlled gaseous atmosphere. Vacuum operation optimises the resonance frequency or "Q factor" of the cantilever, producing better images for semi-contact AFM modes and increased sensitivity for non-contact modes such as MFM (magnetic force microscopy) and EFM (electrostatic force microscopy). Temperature control of the sample is possible up to 200°C. The special Thermohead™ provides extremely low thermal drift , which allows long-term measurements to be done in pre-defined points on the specimen surface.

23 NANOSCALE-LAB Characteristics:
►Maximum scan range: : 100x100x10 µm (up to 150x150x15 µm in DualScan™ mode) ► Min Control Resolution XY: nm ► x, y: Nonlinearity, with closed-loop sensors 0.15% ► z: Noise level, with sensors: 0.04 nm (typically) ► Thermal stability to ± 0.005°C (typically). ► Operation modes in air: STM Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/ STS Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy/contact AFM/ LFM/ ResonantMode (semicontact + noncontact AFM)/ Phase Imaging/ Force Modulation (viscoelasticity)/ MFM/ EFM/ Adhesion Force Imaging/AFM Lithography-Force/Spreading Resistance Imaging (SRI)/AFM Lithography-Voltage/Scanning Capacitance Imaging (SCI)/Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy(SKM)

24 Equipments which will be available very soon!
NANOSCALE-LAB Equipments which will be available very soon! ► RAITH e-LiNE Nanoengineering System and ultra high resolution electron beam lithography ● Field emission emitter          ●   Laser interferometer stage with 100 mm by 100 mm travel range    and  2 nm resolution achieved by closed-loop piezo-positioning          ● 10 MHz DSP -controlled digital pattern generator

25 Equipments which will be available soon:
NANOSCALE-LAB Equipments which will be available soon: ► EDX- Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in SEM- system QUANTAX ( Bruker AXS)- liquid nitrogen free XFlash® silicon drift detector, 135eV resolution, boron detection. ► NANOIDENTER equipment for nanomechanical testing (mainly based on nanoindentation), for characterization of hardness, modulus, elasticity and viscoelasticity, wear etc at nanoscale. Nanomechanical testing provides a way to analyze materials at very small scales and very high resolution This opens the door for a better understanding of materials and thin films and yields quantitative information for research, development and production

26 NANOSCALE-LAB ► HIGH RESOLUTION FEG-SEM Ultra high resolution imaging at low kV Ideal for precise boundary, feature, and particle measurements High efficiency EsB detector for compositional information High efficiency In-lens SE detector for high contrast surface imaging BSE imaging at very short working distances - 1mm WD Ultra stable high current mode for X-ray analysis and EBSD applications - 20 nA / 0.2%/h Large five axes motorised eucentric stage Easy operation through Windows® XP based SmartSEM™ control software Resolution kV kV kV Magnification ,000x in SE mode ,000x with EsB detector Emitter Thermal field emission type, stability >0.2%/h Acceleration Voltage kV Probe Current 4 pA - 10 nA (20 nA optional) Standard Detectors EsB detector with filtering grid Filtering grid voltage V High efficiency In-lens SE detector Everhart-Thornley Secondary Electron Detector

27 Another example NanoBioLab
Experimenting micro/nano structures (microarrays, lab-on-chip-structures etc.) used for bio-medical applications Clean room environment Created by the RO-NANOMED network (open to the other partners in networks and also to the companies) Extended by using other projects Basis of a “Centre of micro- and nantechnologies for bio-medical applications”, inside IMT, open to cooperation

28 NANOBIOLAB The laboratory is installed the technological area of IMT-Bucharest, in the “Scientific and Technological Park for Micro and Nanotechnologies” MINATECH-RO. NANOBIOLAB is devoted to technological research related to new materials, structures, particles, devices etc., involving biological materials. The activities developed in NANOBIOLAB are mainly dedicated to “microarray technologies”, with applications in genomics and proteomics, using new specific equipments: Omni Grid Micro Plotter GeneTAC UC4 Scanner. Omni Grid Micro Plotter can dip into a source plate and spot a given volume of sample solution onto a solid surface (e.g. glass slide, silicon substrate) → up to 200 consistent spots can be produced from a single dip. The print speed is 10,000 spots/11 slides in less than 3.5 hr. A Control Computer assures the utilization interface . A vacuum wash station ensures active washing in between sample transfers while humidity control minimizes evaporation of precious sample. “UC4 Microarray Scanner” is the pair of the nano-plotter, used for reading the chips, for DNA detecting and deposition → it offers high resolution scanning across the entire surface of standard microarray substrates. The system has two-color lasers - green (532nm) and red (635nm) - coupled with high performance optics optimized to maximize collection of fluorescence signal while minimizing the damage caused by photobleaching. The scanner includes: → hardware; → powerful and easy-to-use microarray analysis software for fast and reliable imaging, collection and storage of very large data sets and consolidates these data with experimental information.

29 Development of NANOBIOLAB
New equipments for nano-biomaterials characterisation: EIProScan – Electrochemical Probe Scanner VersaSTAT3 for: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (applications in materials selection and performance evaluation, to detect interfacial properties of catalysts and to determine the biological molecular such as protein and DNA or antigen-antibody interactions ); corrosion analysis (for example to study the corrosion susceptibility of metallic biomedical implant). (bio)sensor development: potentiometric sensors (such as ion-selective electrodes) and amperometric sensors (gas sensors, and chemically modified electrodes) for: → surface analysis: scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) → surface structuring: local deposition of metal or conductive polymers in the micrometer/nanometer scale Applications: imaging of electroactive surfaces; local pH gradients; study of enzyme activity in biological membranes

30 Recent results: Surface Modification for Protein Attachment in Microarray Technology Studies of different chemical substrate (glass slides coated with APS, NHS, ALD, poli-L-lysine, gold and silicon slides coated with gold) printed with BSA of different concentrations and marked with CY3 were performed. After printing, the slides were washed with PBS (pH=7,4) after 20, 40 and 60 minutes. Before and after washing the intensity of the spots by scanning the slides and the UV – spectra of the washing residues were analyzed. Spot intensity as function of concentration for silicon slides functionnalized with gold after different time of washing

31 NANOBIOLAB is a platform of interaction open to all RO-NANOMED participants, but also for cooperation with private companies, universities and other research institutes from Romania and abroad. New activities are foreseen in partnership within the European project “INTEGRAMplus: Integrated MNT platforms and services – Service Action”, IP coordinated by QinetiQ Ltd, UK. A close cooperation is developed with two Romanian companies DDS Diagnostic SRL and Dexter Com SRL New PN II -PC project: Multi Alergen Biochip realised by MicroArray technology Partners: P1 University of Farmacy and Medicine “ Carol Davila P2 -University Bucuresti P3 – Telemedica SA P 4- DDS Diagnostic SRL General objectives O1. Investigation and studying of the specific processes for technological development of a microarray biochip containing multiallergens for the rapid and noninvasive detection for the allergies with high frequencies in Romania; O2. Investigation of the biohibridic interfaces, with accent on proteins (allergens) on silicon substrate

32 New PN II – IDEI project: 2007 – 2010
Study of silicon-protein type biohybride nanostructured surfaces with applications in bio(nano)senzing Objective 1. Biofunctionalisation of the solid support (Si, nanocrystalline silicon, Au/Si, Au/PS) Objective 2. Protein biodetection Secundary objectives: - increase the knowledge for the development of microdevices with supra-molecular architectures; - optimisation of the Si-biomolecule interface in correlation with specific applications; - the establishment of the input parameters for design a testing platform on a Si chip for biohybrid interfaces for electrical and optical measurements in real time.

33 Recent results: Resorbable porous silicon nanocomposite reservoirs for mineral or drug delivery (b) (a) Samples with Ag / PS / Si – n: plan view and cross section Samples with Fe / PS / Si – n: plan view and cross section of spin-on of a mixing etoxyetanol / Fe(NO3)3 New PN II project: Silicon based multifunctional nanoparticles for cancer therapy The aim: - development of silicon based nanostructured systems for vectorisation and controled release of the biological active substances of therapeutic interest Impact: The devices which lead the drugs directly to the proximity of affected organ and release them as prescribed doses will improve the medical treatment. → A particular effect will have on cancer treatment, because silicon, in nanostructured form, allows the carrying out of cytostatic drugs as well as radioactive ions, and offers, in this simple mode, the possibility of a complete treatment with minimum effort and maximum benefit – the frequently negative secondary effects from classical therapy. iron oxides (Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanosized Particles -SPION) These systems will consists of superparamagnetic microparticules nanostructured silicon carriering drugs integrated in an organic matrix Partners: National Institute for Biological Science; Institute of Oncology

34 Nanocomposite silicon based membranes for microdevices
Recent results: Two types of Si membranes were designed and fabricated: 1. suspended at the middle Si wafer, in depth; integrated on the Si wafer face PA2, x 100 ~ 30 μm ~ 25 μm Porosification process: - electrochemical etching in HF based solution The modifications of process parameters allow us to obtain porous silicon layers with different dimensions of pores / Si fibrils Depending of PS membrane morphology specific applications were developed Si nanostructured membrane can be the required elements to assure: filter and dosing layer in controlled drug delivery device proton conduction for miniaturised fuel cell dielectric / sensing layer in capacitive humidity / gas sensor

35 Department for converging technologies
MIMOMEMS Centre for RF and Opto MEMS (European Centre of Excellence) NanoScaleLab Centre for structuring and characterization at the nano-scale NanoBioLab Centre for biomedical applications of micro- and nanotechnologies

36 Contributii din IMT-Microtehnologie
Raluca Muller, director de departament Adrian Dinescu, sef laborator Raluca Gavrila Mihaela Miu Multumim pentru atentie! Contact: Dan Dascalu

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