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The Developmental Value of Dual Citizenship Anna Ohanyan, Ph. D. Political Science Department Stonehill College Easton, Massachusetts, United States

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Presentation on theme: "The Developmental Value of Dual Citizenship Anna Ohanyan, Ph. D. Political Science Department Stonehill College Easton, Massachusetts, United States"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Developmental Value of Dual Citizenship Anna Ohanyan, Ph. D. Political Science Department Stonehill College Easton, Massachusetts, United States

2 2 Key Arguments State-society relations are at the core of citizenship debates State-society relations are at the core of citizenship debates The DC arrangements affect the Armenian state-society relationships The DC arrangements affect the Armenian state-society relationships DC arrangements contain the tools and institutions which are bound to change the institutional development of Armenian statehood and its relationship to the societyDC arrangements contain the tools and institutions which are bound to change the institutional development of Armenian statehood and its relationship to the society The visions of Armenian state should be driving discussions on dual citizenship The visions of Armenian state should be driving discussions on dual citizenship Dual citizenship is not given: the design, management and administration of DC law will harness its developmental value Dual citizenship is not given: the design, management and administration of DC law will harness its developmental value

3 3 The Communist and the Consumer Citizenship as a bundle of rights and responsibilities Citizenship as a bundle of rights and responsibilities The variance of citizenship models and types of statehood The variance of citizenship models and types of statehood Where is Armenia headed in terms of its statehood?Where is Armenia headed in terms of its statehood? The variance in state-society relationships (Marshalls model) The variance in state-society relationships (Marshalls model) Civil rights: legal status and the protection of the citizens before the lawCivil rights: legal status and the protection of the citizens before the law The citizen: will not act unless the civic liberties are threatened The citizen: will not act unless the civic liberties are threatened Political rights: political participation and suffragePolitical rights: political participation and suffrage The citizen: proactive and expectant of political participation The citizen: proactive and expectant of political participation Social rights: the guarantee of standards of living, including the right of employment and health careSocial rights: the guarantee of standards of living, including the right of employment and health care The citizen: shielded against the market fluctuations; proactive welfare state The citizen: shielded against the market fluctuations; proactive welfare state

4 4 Citizenship and state-society relationships

5 5 Citizenry Dominant Spheres of State PassiveActive Private Conservative Citizenship Passive citizenry Passive citizenry Uninvolved state Uninvolved state Transitional Citizenship Active citizenry Active citizenry Uninvolved state Uninvolved state PublicPaternalistic Passive citizenry Passive citizenry Involved state Involved state Liberalized citizenship Active citizenry Active citizenry Involved state Involved state

6 6 Dual citizenship and the nation-state DC breaks/alters the social contract between the state and the society DC breaks/alters the social contract between the state and the society DC can potentially DC can potentially Generate new claimants on the already limited resources for public goods and social policies (challenge to the state)Generate new claimants on the already limited resources for public goods and social policies (challenge to the state) Increase the financial flows to support the very social policy of the post-Communist Armenia (assist the society and the state)Increase the financial flows to support the very social policy of the post-Communist Armenia (assist the society and the state) Heighten the public pressure on the state:Heighten the public pressure on the state: If unmatched by the institutional growth of the state may translate into a backlash (challenge the state) If unmatched by the institutional growth of the state may translate into a backlash (challenge the state) Increased expectations from the public of the state (challenge the state) Increased expectations from the public of the state (challenge the state) The gap of rising expectations and stagnant state capacities may be problematic (challenge the state) The gap of rising expectations and stagnant state capacities may be problematic (challenge the state)

7 7 Dual Citizenship Debates The Critics and the doom and gloom arguments The Critics and the doom and gloom arguments Challenge to the national sovereigntyChallenge to the national sovereignty Weaken the public loyalty to the stateWeaken the public loyalty to the state Dual citizens can shop for better economic and legal environmentsDual citizens can shop for better economic and legal environments The proponents: The proponents: The state sovereignty has already been diminished by the globalization forcesThe state sovereignty has already been diminished by the globalization forces Transnational companies already rival the states for the public loyaltyTransnational companies already rival the states for the public loyalty Employment generation by transnational companies has already shifted the locus of power from the state to the private sectorEmployment generation by transnational companies has already shifted the locus of power from the state to the private sector National citizens have been transformed to corporate subjectsNational citizens have been transformed to corporate subjects National citizenship has been diluted by neo-liberal policiesNational citizenship has been diluted by neo-liberal policies

8 8 Ironically, dual citizenship is a function of global forces, but can also be made irrelevant by the same forces.

9 9 International Considerations DC as a source of investments DC as a source of investments DC as a vehicle of political representation abroad DC as a vehicle of political representation abroad DC as a vehicle to strengthen the nation-state in global economics and politics DC as a vehicle to strengthen the nation-state in global economics and politics DC can facilitate the rise of the trans-nation-state DC can facilitate the rise of the trans-nation-state Administratively more agileAdministratively more agile FlexibleFlexible EntrepreneurialEntrepreneurial Highly globalHighly global DC, the global economy and the market citizenship DC, the global economy and the market citizenship States competing for citizens with other states as well as corporations and other non-state actorsStates competing for citizens with other states as well as corporations and other non-state actors Diminishing depth of state citizenship increasing breadth of transnational citizenship Diminishing depth of state citizenship increasing breadth of transnational citizenship

10 10 Domestic Considerations DC and the retrenchment of the welfare state DC and the retrenchment of the welfare state Weakening social dimension of Armenian statehoodWeakening social dimension of Armenian statehood Social rights expand the boundaries of citizenship from those who own property to those who pay taxes from their earnings (Antonin Wagner, 2004)Social rights expand the boundaries of citizenship from those who own property to those who pay taxes from their earnings (Antonin Wagner, 2004) Weakening of the welfare state and the greater involvement of non- state actors in social provision within the industrialized worldWeakening of the welfare state and the greater involvement of non- state actors in social provision within the industrialized world The rise of public-private partnerships within industrialized worldThe rise of public-private partnerships within industrialized world DC would enable a mobilization of social contributions through governmental and non-governmental means DC would enable a mobilization of social contributions through governmental and non-governmental means Diaspora organizations as major contributors for social development in Armenia Diaspora organizations as major contributors for social development in Armenia

11 11 Policy Recommendations: The Developmental Value of Duality (DVD) The enhancement of Armenia-Diaspora Relationships The enhancement of Armenia-Diaspora Relationships Strengthening of the Armenian state institutionally, administratively and financially Strengthening of the Armenian state institutionally, administratively and financially Efficient design and careful management of the appropriate institutions is a prerequisite for the DVD to be realized Efficient design and careful management of the appropriate institutions is a prerequisite for the DVD to be realized The efficient management of Dual Citizenship will fail to escape the civil society route The efficient management of Dual Citizenship will fail to escape the civil society route

12 12 Policy Recommendations: The Developmental Value of Duality (DVD) The liberalization of Armenia citizenship rights will entail a transition from conservative (passive/private) to liberalized (active/public) dual citizenship policies. The liberalization of Armenia citizenship rights will entail a transition from conservative (passive/private) to liberalized (active/public) dual citizenship policies. It will address the following three dimensions: It will address the following three dimensions: Civil society within ArmeniaCivil society within Armenia Civil society within DiasporaCivil society within Diaspora Armenian public sectorArmenian public sector Liberalization of citizenship will activate the dormant civil society Liberalization of citizenship will activate the dormant civil society Liberalization of citizenship will generate more demands for an institutional and administrative evolution of Armenian state Liberalization of citizenship will generate more demands for an institutional and administrative evolution of Armenian state Will strengthen the global dimension of Armenian statehood Will strengthen the global dimension of Armenian statehood Armenia as a trans-nation-state Armenia as a trans-nation-state

13 13 The Institutional Mechanisms for Liberalizing and Realizing the DVD (incentive structures) Network development Network development Horizontally, within the civil societyHorizontally, within the civil society Vertically, between the civil society and the Armenian public sectorVertically, between the civil society and the Armenian public sector Create incentives for foreign residents to invest in local development in Armenia, particularly within the rural areasCreate incentives for foreign residents to invest in local development in Armenia, particularly within the rural areas Public-private partnerships Public-private partnerships Create incentive structures for the public sector to work with the private sector and civil society organizationsCreate incentive structures for the public sector to work with the private sector and civil society organizations DC law may enable the state to partner in some of the ongoing social development projects of Diaspora communitiesDC law may enable the state to partner in some of the ongoing social development projects of Diaspora communities State inclusion in these partnerships will enhance the overall impact of such partnerships in social developmentState inclusion in these partnerships will enhance the overall impact of such partnerships in social development Provide tax breaks and allow the acquisition of commercial property for foreign residents in rural areas where the reach of the state has been limitedProvide tax breaks and allow the acquisition of commercial property for foreign residents in rural areas where the reach of the state has been limited

14 14 The Institutional Mechanisms for Liberalizing and Realizing the DVD Public administration reform and decentralization Public administration reform and decentralization Create arrangements for the local levels of government to collect taxes from foreign investmentsCreate arrangements for the local levels of government to collect taxes from foreign investments Give all the residents the right to vote in local electionsGive all the residents the right to vote in local elections Associational democracy Associational democracy DC arrangements can facilitate the creation of associations of Diaspora- based individuals which could give them access to the policy-making processes at the local levels of governmentDC arrangements can facilitate the creation of associations of Diaspora- based individuals which could give them access to the policy-making processes at the local levels of government Provide the institutional structure to realize the developmental value of dual citizenship arrangements Provide the institutional structure to realize the developmental value of dual citizenship arrangements

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