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1 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 ITRS - YE ITWG Conference in Makuhari Messe (Japan) December 3, 2010 Lothar Pfitzner

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Presentation on theme: "1 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 ITRS - YE ITWG Conference in Makuhari Messe (Japan) December 3, 2010 Lothar Pfitzner"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 ITRS - YE ITWG Conference in Makuhari Messe (Japan) December 3, 2010 Lothar Pfitzner

2 2 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 Scope of Yield Enhancement Aspects –Manufacturing of integrated semiconductor devices: numerous processing steps building the 3D structure of the chip (e.g. 9 Cu and low – k interconnect layers for 32 nm) –Yield: percentage of operating chips at the end of the manufacturing process Components –Determination and control of contamination –Inspection of structures and critical dimensions –Model to predict and calculate yield based on historic contamination levels (particulate and metals) and defects (failures) –Determination of kill ratios: Correlation between defects and yield 45 nm high-k metal gate transistor. Presented by Mark Bohr (Intel) 02/2009 45 nm ramp production was the fastest Presented by Mark Bohr (Intel) 02/2009 Gordon Moore: There is no fundamental obstacle to achieving device yields of 100%. (Electronics, 38 (8), 1965)

3 3 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 Objectives of Yield Enhancement collect defect data –tools for inspection and root cause analysis –automated defect classification and filtering –inspection strategy yield management –software –objective: to correlate data and find excursions –predict yield defect data excursions –define specs –procedure for clarification process module 1 process module 2 process module k wafer 1 2 k manufacturing inspection and collection of data review, characterization, metrology defect densities defect classification

4 4 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 Defects and Failure Mechanisms processes: litho, etch thin film implantation, planarization, cleaning,… faults and problems: defects as e.g. particles, flatness, layer properties, patterns, dimensions challenges –yield and defect map in 2 D –root cause analysis requires 3 D –model, predict, and forecast yield YM&DB –requires fast and non- destructive inspection (defect density) and metrology (root cause analysis) for 2D and 3D structures DDC –requires preventive defect and contamination control WECC n-wellp-well n Via p crack short open contamination p+p+ particle COP layer thickness Metal 1 Metal 2 overlay p Interconnects n+n+ particle ESD Damage Si crystal: stacking faults, contamination, stress, COP (crystal originating particles), epi defects interfaces: roughness, state density, charges (YM&DB: defect budget and yield modelling - DDC:

5 5 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 Organization of the Chapter 2010 Chair: Lothar Pfitzner (Fraunhofer IISB) Co-Chair: Dilip Patel (ISMI) Difficult Challenges Table YE 2 Technology Requirements and Potential Solutions -Yield Learning (YL – not active in 2010) Chair: N.N.; Contributors to be defined by Samsung, AMAT -Yield Model and Defect Budget (YMDB – not active in 2010) Chair: Sumio Kuwabara (Renesas) - Japan Table YE 3, (2 deleted tables – defect budgets) -Defect Detection and Characterization (DDC) Chair: acting: A. Nutsch and D. Patel – Europe and US Table YE 4, YE 5, YE 6 -Wafer Environment Contamination Control (WECC) Chair: Kevin Pate (Intel) – USA, Andreas Neuber (AMAT) - Europe Table YE 7

6 6 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 2010 YE ITWG Contributors Europe Lothar Pfitzner ( chair, Fraunhofer IISB ) Andreas Neuber (c-chair, AMAT ) Dieter Rathei ( DDC, DR Yield ) Francois Finck ( DDC, ST ) Barry Kennedy ( DDC, Intel ) Andreas Nutsch ( DDC, Fraunhofer IISB ) Ines Thurner ( DDC, Convanit ) Jan Cavelaars ( DDC, NXP ) Mathias Haeuser (DDC, Infineon) Delphine Gerin ( WECC, ST Crolles ) Astrid Gettel ( WECC, GLOBALFOUNDRIES ) Christoph Hocke ( WECC, Infineon Technologies ) Michael Otto ( WECC, Fraunhofer IISB ) Matthias Pfutterer ( WECC, M+W Group ) Hubert Winzig ( WECC, Infineon ) Francesca Illuzzi ( WECC, Numonyx ) Hans Jansen ( WECC, ASML ) Jost Kames ( WECC, artemis control AG ) Arnaud Favre ( WECC, Adixen ) Japan Sumio Kuwabara ( YMDB, Renesas ) Hiroshi Nagaishi ( DDC, Renesas ) Naoki Kotani ( DDC, Panasonic ) Takahiro Tsuchiya ( DDC, Fujitsu Semiconductor ) Yoshitaka Tatsumoto ( DDC, Lasertec ) Masahiko Ikeno ( DDC, Hitachi High-Technologies ) Takashi Futatsuki ( WECC, Organo ) Teruyuki Hayashi ( WECC, TEL ) Katsunobu Kitami ( WECC, Kurita ) Kaoru Kondoh ( WECC, Rion ) Yasuhiko Matsumoto ( WECC, Rohm ) Fumio Mizuno ( WECC, MEISEI University ) Kazuo Nishihagi ( WECC, HORIBA ) Koichiro Saga ( WECC, SONY ) Yoshimi Shiramizu ( co-chair, Renesas ) Isamu Sugiyama ( WECC, NOMURA ) Ken Tsugane ( WECC, HITACHI ) Hidezuki Sakaizawa (DDC, NGR ) United States Dilip Patel ( co-chair, ISMI ) Barry Gotlinsky ( WECC, Pall ) Biswanath Roy ( WECC, Pall ) Bob Latimer ( WECC, Hach ) Chris Muller ( WECC, Purafil ) Dan Fuchs ( WECC, Air Liquide ) Dan Wilcox ( WECC, Replipoint Technologies ) David Blackford ( WECC, Fluid Measurement Technologies ) David Roberts ( WECC, Nantero ) Drew Sinha ( WECC, Siltronic ) Dwight Beal ( WECC, PMS ) James McAndrew ( WECC, Air Liquide ) Jeff Chapman ( WECC, IBM ) Jeff Hanson ( WECC, Texas Instruments ) John DeGenova ( WECC, Texas Instruments ) John Kurowski ( WECC, IBM ) Keith Kerwin ( WECC, TI ) Kevin Pate ( co-chair, Intel ) Larry Rabellino ( WECC, SAES ) Marc Camenzind ( WECC, Balazs-AirLiquide ) Rich Riley ( WECC, Intel ) Rick Godec ( WECC, Ionics Instruments ) Sarah Schoen ( WECC, Balazs-AirLiquide ) Scott Anderson ( WECC, Balazs-AirLiquide ) Slava Libman ( WECC, M+W Group ) Suhas Ketkar ( WECC, APCI ) Terry Stange ( WECC, Hach Ultra Analytics ) Tony Schleisman ( WECC, Air Liquide ) Val Stradz ( WECC, Intel ) Wai-Ming Choi ( WECC, Entegris ) William Moore ( WECC, IBM ) Milton Goldwin ( DDC, ISMI ) Taiwan Victor Liang (, TSMC ) YCHuang Huang (, TSMC ) Ray Yang (, UMC ) Mao-Hsiang Yen (, Winbond ) Cherng Guo (, MXIX ) Korea Y.J.Kim ( Samsung) Thank you very much! Malaysia Guillaume Gallet ( WECC, Camfil)

7 7 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 2010 Key Challenges The Yield Enhancement community is challenged by the following topics: Near Term (>16 nm) –Detection and identification of Small Yield Limiting Defects from Nuisance - Detection of multiple killer defects and their simultaneous differentiation at high capture rates, low cost of ownership and high throughput. It is a challenge to find small but yield relevant defects under a vast amount of nuisance and false defects. –Non-Visual Defects and Process Variations – Increasing yield loss due to non-visual defects and process variations requires new approaches in methodologies, diagnostics and control. This includes the correlation of systematic yield loss and layout attributes. The irregularity of features in logic areas makes them very sensitive to systematic yield loss mechanisms such as patterning process variations across the lithographic process window. –3D Inspection – For inspection tools the capability to inspect high aspect ratios but also to detect non-visuals such as voids, embedded defects, and sub-surface defects is crucial. The need for high-speed and cost-effective 3D inspection tools becomes crucial as the importance of 3D defect types increases. –Process Stability vs. Absolute Contamination Level – Including the Correlation to Yield Test structures, methods and data are needed for correlating defects caused by wafer environment and handling with yield. This requires determination of control limits for gases, chemicals, air, precursors, ultrapure water and substrate surface cleanliness.

8 8 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 2010 Key Challenges The Yield Enhancement community is challenged by the following topics: Long Term (<16 nm) –Next Generation Inspection - As bright field detection in the far-field loses its ability to discriminate defects of interest, it has become necessary to explore new alternative technologies that can meet inspection requirements beyond 16 nm node. Several techniques should be given consideration as potential candidates for inspection: high speed scanning probe microscopy, near- field scanning optical microscopy, interferometry, scanning capacitance microscopy and e-beam. This pathfinding exercise needs to assess each techniques ultimate resolution, throughput and potential interactions with samples (contamination, or degree of mechanical damage) as key success criteria. –Inline Defect Characterization and Analysis – Alternatives to Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy systems are required for high throughput in-line characterization and analysis for defects smaller than feature sizes. The data volume to be analyzed is drastically increasing, therefore demanding for new methods for data interpretation and to ensure quality. –Development of model-based design-manufacturing interface Due to Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and the high complexity of integration, the models must comprehend greater parametric sensitivities, ultra-thin film integrity, impact of circuit design, greater transistor packing, etc. –Next generation lithography: Manufacturing faces several choices of lithography technologies in the long term, which all pose different challenges with regard to yield enhancement, defect and contamination control.

9 9 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 Update 2010 Overall –confirmation of key challenges –deleted 450 mm as a new challenge –ISMI to organize a new defect budget survey –Article in Future Fab International –Update of Members finalized DDC –adjust tables to ORTC input –update colours and numbers DB & YL –outline for defect budget survey presented –discuss non–visible defects –Tables were deleted (not up to date)

10 10 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 Update 2010 WECC: Focus items (Ultrapure Water, Chemicals, Gas, Airborne/Surface Molecular Contamination and Cleanroom) –Particles: Measurement, composition, critical size, identify yield correlation, deposition models –Organics: Measurement, speciation, identify yield correlation, deposition models –Ionic, metallic and other molecular contamination: Deposition risk assessment methodology and model –Gases and CVD/ALD precursor contamination control requirements: measurement, control and impact assessment –Airborne and Surface Molecular Contamination: integrated control concept (carrier and mini-environment), metrology requirements, deposition models and impact assessments

11 11 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 ITRS-SEMI Alignment on Ultrapure Water Spec UPW ITRS group identified limitations of use of ITRS tables for design UPW facilities – ITRS enables future technologies Collaboration between UPW ITRS group and SEMI resulted in development of new UPW quality guide (SEMI F063) –F063 is a guide providing advanced Semiconductor Fabs with information required for setting internal specifications is based on ITRS risk assessment considers UPW treatment technology and metrology feasibility takes into account economical viability –The agreement is that F063 be updated every two years, maintaining ITRS pace –The SEMI TF is attempting to align the F063 and ASTM standard

12 12 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 Defect Budget Survey Status 2010 Goal: to supply defect density data for processes and equipment Prodedure: –request for particles per wafer pass data / control limits –to guarantee comparability of data request for technology (product, wafer size, technology generation) test wafer ( prime or new monitor wafer, reclaimed wafer, recycled wafer, bare or film) defect detection (detection tool, particle size limit) Defect Budget Survey (site available on web) –organized by ISMI (contact:; –Survey performed using web site: Contributors defined in Europe (Japan and US to be added) Participants will get back anonymized data

13 13 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 YE involvement of ANNA Input generation by ANNA (European Integrated Activity of Excellence and Networking for Nano and Micro- Electronics Analysis) –ANNA integrates analytical infrastructures ( virtual distributed joint laboratory (8 laboratories accredited according ISO 17025) development of analytical techniques for semiconductor manufacturing driven by quality requirements such as comparability of techniques and methods but also by the challenge of pushing metrology and analytical techniques to the limits involvement of industry, research organisations and academia –Inputs for ITRS: Contributions for standardization (ISO and DIN) Metrology challenges Input to be delivered by IDM and wafer manufacturers

14 14 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 ANNA Contributions for Standardization The production of relevant reference material and standards. –References for trace analysis were produced and characterized –Ultra-short pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of Ni was used in reference free SR-TXRF analysis –B, As, Si implanted samples were produced at depths and concentrations for ultra shallow junctions –To investigate nanocrystals HfO 2 and HfSiO 2 films were made for measurements of thickness and stoichiometry –For strain in device processing, epitaxial wafers were used to produce standard samples for CBED analysis –Standard samples for nanocrystals characterization were developed

15 15 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 Summary December 2010 Setup of ITRS Forums in operation and used for communication Article for Future Fab International Development / Improvement of the Yield Enhancement Chapter –Addition of new key challenges integrated AMC concept (together with Factory Integration), next generation inspection –ISMI / SEMATECH outlined a defect budget survey: request to get support from IDMs (Asia, US, Europe) presentation survey outline available (contact: –European IDMs committed to work on IDM contribution to the survey and chairing DDC - Defect Detection and Characterization

16 16 Makuhari Messe December 3, 2010 Outlook Development/ Improvement of the Yield Enhancement chapter –Reflection of current status and future requirements needs subsequent adjustment of outline and content of the chapter –Prepare short overview and questionnaire on sub-TWGs for improvement of content and possible new activities Defect Budget and Yield Models Defect Detection and Characterization Yield learning Wafer Environment Contamination Control (already available) –Request to IDMs, ESIA, JEITA, KSIA, SIA, TSIA, ISMI, academia contributing to ITRS: assure that sufficient contributors and resources are available surveys required for future updates e.g. DB&YM

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