Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 What is Psychology Hint: It’s the study of behavior and mental processes!!! Identify the goals of psychology, and explain how psychology is a."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1 What is Psychology Hint: It’s the study of behavior and mental processes!!! Identify the goals of psychology, and explain how psychology is a science.Describe the work done by psychologist according to their areas of specialization.Explain the historical background of the study of psychology.Describe the six main contemporary perspectives in psychology.
2 Why Study Psychology?What do you hope to learn from the study of psychology? Perhaps you hope to gain a better understanding of why people act as they do, or more specifically, why you act as you do. Or perhaps you want to learn more about your thoughts and feelings; in doing so, you might discover more effective ways to handle, or help others handle, the stresses of daily life. Whether your reason is general or specific, the study of psychology will give you new ways to look at and interpret your world and the people who inhabit it.
3 Behavior and mental processes Behavior is any observable and/or measurable activityCognitive activity is any private mental processCognitive Activity affect behavior and behavior can affect cognitive activity
4 The Goals of Psychology ObserveDescribeExplainPredictControl
5 Psychology as a Science Social science and a natural sciencePsychological TheoriesStatement that attempts to explain somethingResearch methodsSurveyExperiment
6 Quick Quiz 1 What is psychology? What are the 5 goals of psychology? In what way is psychology a social science? How is it also related to the natural sciences?CRITICAL THINKING: What do you think is the main value of psychology? Explain your answer.
7 Clinical Psychologist Largest subgroup of psychologistHelp people overcome/control problems and continue living lifeThey work in a variety of settingsNot to be confused with Psychiatrist
8 Counseling Psychologists Typically treat people with adjustment problems instead of serious psychological disorders
9 School PsychologistHelp students who have a problem that interferes with learningWork with staff and parents to hop students reach their potentialRecommend students for class placement
10 Educational Psychologists Focus on course planning and instructional methods for an entire school system instead of individualThey are concerned with how people learn and how learning is affectedHelp prepare standardized tests
11 Developmental Psychologist Study changes that occur throughout a persons lifespanNature v. Nurture debate
12 Personality and Social Psychologists Identify characteristics or traitsGender rolesPersonality psychologists look within a person to explain behavior Social psychologists look at why people behave in a certain way in a particular setting
13 Experimental Psychologists Conduct lab researchMostly concerned with Basic Research, which adds to the broad field of psychology findings
14 Other Specialists Industrial and Organizational Psychology Environmental PsychologyConsumer PsychologyForensic PsychologyHealth Psychology
15 Quick Quiz 2Which subspecialty makes up the largest group of psychologist?List 3 subspecialties of psychology and describe the works of each.CRITICAL THINKING: If you decided to become a psychologist, what subspecialty of psychology would you prefer and why?
16 History of PsychologyPeople have always been interested in the behaviors of other people, and thus psychology is as old as human history. Interest in the actions, motives, and thoughts of human beings an be traced as far back as the philosopher and scientists of ancient times.
17 Roots from Ancient Greece Plato2000 years ago“Know Thyself”SocratesIntrospectionAristotlePeri PsychesHippocratesStudied medicine and said abnormal behavior may be caused by medical problems
18 The Middle Ages Psychological problems were caused by the devil “Tests” to determine if people were possessed.
19 Birth of Modern Science society began to move away from beliefs of possessionScientific movements lead to advances in psychology1800s modern psychology is born
20 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Structuralism Objective sensations Basic elements of conscious experienceObjective sensationsReflect the outside worldSubjective feelingsEmotional response to mental images
21 William James (1842-1910) Funtionalism “Stream of Consciousness” How mental processes help an organism adapt to its surroundingsSuccessful behavior leads to babits, unsuccessful behavior is dropped“Stream of Consciousness”First modern text bookThe Principles of Psychology
22 John B. Watson (1878-1958) Behaviorism The scientific study of observable behaviors
23 B.F. Skinner ( )Behavior is learned through reinforcement
24 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis Slip of the tongue Unconscious impulses and urges determine human behaviorSlip of the tongueMeaning of dreams
25 The Gestalt School Max Wertheimer, Kurt Kofka, and Wolfgang Kohler Belief that the whole (Gestalt) is more than the sum of the parts, particularly in human behavior
26 Quick Quiz 3Describe the main difference between structuralism and functionalismWhy do behaviorists object to schools of psychology that study consciousness?CRITICAL THINKING: Identify one example of the influence of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory on popular culture.
27 Contemporary Perspectives Today we no longer find psychologist who describe themselves as structuralist or functionalists. And although the school of Gestalt Psychology inspired current research in perception and problem solving, few would consider themselves Gestalt psychologists. The number of traditional behaviorists and psycholoanalysts also have been declining. Many current psychologists in the behaviorist tradition have modified the theories of Watson and Skinner. Similarly, many contemporary psycholanalysts do not use the methods Feud did.Nevertheless, the historical traditions of psychology find expression in contemporary perspectives on psychology. The most important of these are the biological, cognitive, humanistic, psychoanalytic, learning, and sociocultural perspectives. Each perspective emphasizes different topics of investigation and has different approaches.
28 The Biological Perspective Biology influences our behaviorBrainNervesHormonesGenes
29 The Cognitive Perspective Role of thoughts in determining our behaviorMental thoughtsPerceived informationWhy is it different for different people?
30 The Humanistic Perspective Self-awareness, experience, and choice permit us to “invent ourselves”Says people are naturally good and want to manage their negative impulses, and realize their potential
31 The Psychoanalytic Perspective Unconscious forces determine human behaviorChildhood determines behaviorVenting
32 Learning Perspective Emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior Social-learning theoryPeople can change or create their own environments
33 The Sociocultural Perspective Ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status impact human behavior and thoughts
34 Quick Quiz 4How do cognitive psychologists compare people’s mental processes to the working of computers?How would a psychoanalyst explain aggression?Explain how the humanist and social learning perspectives support the view that people are free to make choices.CRITICAL THINKING: How does knowledge of cultural differences enrich the study of psychology?