Background pre 1970 RCHME 1908 World Wars Town and Country Planning Acts of 1944, 1947 and 1968 Architectural history Ecclesiastical, seigniorial and polite structures C Fox and Lord Raglan, N Pevsner and M Wood W. G. Hoskins and W Pantin
Background pre 1970 Wharram Percy D.M.V. 1950-1990 Historian - M Beresford Archaeologist - J Hurst Later C Dyer Localised study Why did a whole village disappear?
Background c1965 – 1980s Move toward Processual Archaeology Chronologies – typologies Regional variations Classifications All data driven C Hewett, R. W. Brunskill, R Harris Vernacular?
Background 1980s-1990s Post-Processual Archaeology Birth of Buildings Archaeology 1993 (Morriss 2000) Dendrochronolgy Social and economic variables Wider implications/subjects Diffusionism C Dyer, M Johnson, T James, E Roberts and S Pearson
NOW Cognitive Archaeology Understanding the why? Digital Archaeology Mobile Archaeology / Geophysics Holistic approach Immersive Virtual technologies Solid Dendrochronolgies Media driven - Time Team, etc M Johnson, C Dyer, D Miles, R Morriss and R Samson
Whittlewood Project Prof C Dyer 2000-05 100km² Communal landscape management study Holistic approach Public involvement No chronological boundaries Full digital archive http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/archive/whittlewood_ahrb_2006/
History of computing and archaeological theory DateArchaeological School Types of theories and problems Computing machines – hardware and software Subjects of use Pre- 1930Natural observationDescriptiveCalculating machinesStatistical analysis 1930-65Cultural historyTemporal and geographic gapsmanship as well as reconstructive Mainframes, Fortran, Cobol Statistical analysis, data storage and manipulation 1965-80ProcessualSystematic, hypothetical, nomethetic, behavioural, group oriented Minis Vaxs, PC, Pascal, C, Basic Causation, modelling, simulation, GIS 1980-95Post-processualIndividual, interpretivePCs, C++, PrologExpert systems, non- causative, AI, field use, GIS 1990-CognitiveIndividual, experimental and hypothetical, reconstructive Workstations, PCs, parallel processing, supercomputing, visual basic, numerous specialised languages AI, GIS, individual modelling, visualisation, webography (Zubrow 2006)
Cognitive Archaeology the study of past ways of thought from material remains (Renfrew & Bahn 2000) To try understand how people thought about and engaged with their environment
Key texts Daly, P. & Evans, T. (eds.), (2006). Digital Archaeology: Bridging Method and Theory, London: Routledge. Dibble, H. & McPherron, S., 2002. Using Computers in Archaeology: A Practical Guide, USA: McGraw-Hill. Gerrard, C., 2003. Medieval Archaeology: Understanding Traditions and Contemporary Approaches, London: Routledge. Earl, G. & Goodrick, G., 2004. A manufactured past: virtual reality in archaeology. http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue15/2/toc.html. (April 2005)http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue15/2/toc.html Johnson, M., 1999. Archaeological Theory: An Introduction, London: Blackwell. Renfrew, C. & Bahn, P., 2000. Archaeology: Theories Methods and Practice, London: Thames & Hudson. Zubrow, E., (2006). Digital Archaeology: A Historical Context, in Digital Archaeology: Bridging Method and Theory, eds. P. Daly & T. Evans London: Routledge, 10-31.