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ELFE 0511211 European e-Learning Forum for Education – ELFE Summary of findings Tjeerd Plomp University of Twente Enschede, the Netherlands Conference.

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Presentation on theme: "ELFE 0511211 European e-Learning Forum for Education – ELFE Summary of findings Tjeerd Plomp University of Twente Enschede, the Netherlands Conference."— Presentation transcript:

1 ELFE 0511211 European e-Learning Forum for Education – ELFE Summary of findings Tjeerd Plomp University of Twente Enschede, the Netherlands Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

2 ELFE 0511212 Three Aims: #1: Analyse and share good experiences and identify good practices in using ICT in schools – ELFE teams to schools #2: Study the possibilities of transferring these good practices to other schools and countries – school-to-school visits #3: Create a debate on how a European policy on e-Learning and use of ICT in education - conferences Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

3 ELFE 0511213 This presentation: -Conceptualization -School visits -Selection of schools -Findings: 1.ICT use and infrastructure 2.Experiences of/in schools 3.School-to-school visits Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

4 ELFE 0511214 Some general wisdom ICT is means, not goal in itself Our society has transformed from an industrial society into an information or knowledge society => Have consequences for education and for how schools function and teachers teach In 21 st century our perception of what is good education has to change – this pertains to all components of the teaching-learning (T/L) process Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

5 ELFE 0511215 Components of the Teaching/Learning process Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE Rationale/vision Aims-objectives Content Learning activities Teacher role Materials & resources Grouping Location Time Assessment Metaphor of spiderweb: it is as strong as its weakest axe!

6 ELFE 0511216 content studentteacher learning process materials & infra structure aims and c n s u l o c o a c h i n g t n e m e g n a a m p l a n n i n t i n g g Learning: interaction between actors and goals of education

7 ELFE 0511217 Good education for 21 st century: may mean different things dependent on context and choices made, e.g., –existing goals and content, but innovative pedagogy –new goals and content, with new pedagogy (e.g. non-traditional grouping, location, time and/or assessment) –ICT as instrument in realizing changes Important: change is a PROCESS not an EVENT Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

8 ELFE 0511218 Possible shifts in pedagogy (adapted from Kozma et al., 1999) LessMore School Isolated from societyIntegrated in society Most information on school functioning confidential Information openly available Teacher Initiator of instructionHelps students find appropriate instruct path Evaluates studentHelps student to evaluate own progress Places low emphasis on communcation skills Places high emphasis on communcation skills Mostly passiveMore active

9 ELFE 0511219 Possible shifts in pedagogy (contd) (adapted from Kozma et al., 1999) LessMore Student Mostly passiveMore active Learns at schoolLearns also outside school Hardly any teamworkMuch teamwork Takes questions from books or teachers Asks questions OR generates them (projects) Learns answers to questions Finds answers to questions Learning outcomes Emphasis on reproductive skills Emphasis on productive skills

10 ELFE 05112110 Good education for 21 st century: A good balance between what is traditionally valued and what is needed in an information society. as stated - it may mean different things in different schools and in different countries, dependent on context and choices made. But we believe that using ICT is key in realizing changes Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

11 ELFE 05112111 Criteria for selecting schools General: -normal schools, i.e. no specific ICT projects -Mixture of primary & secondary schools Specific: -ICT use aimed at pedagogical innovation – new methods and/or new goals -ICT intensively used in teaching- learning in school as a whole Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

12 ELFE 05112112 Implications for project Great variation in 15 schools selected: -in pedagogical approaches and in ICT applications -in degree of dissemination and use of ICT, BUT: -all school have policy aimed at integrating ICT in teaching & learning See Summary – Table on p.3 Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

13 ELFE 05112113 Implications for project The small number of schools does not allow for any statistical generalisation But: the analysis of the cases form a rich input for discussions, reflections and recommendations on use of ICT in education recommendations. Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

14 ELFE 05112114 Approach for school visits AIM #1: identify good experiences and good practices in using ICT in schools Data collection and reporting structured according to two perspectives: 1.ICT use and infrastructure 2.Experiences of/in schools Each perspective elaborated in a a number of analysis questions. Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

15 ELFE 05112115 Approach for school visits ELFE team visited schools for 1 day Interviews with: -Principal -Innovative teachers and ICT coordinator -other teachers -Students Questionnaires to Principal and ICT coordinator (adapted from IEA SITES-M2 study) Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

16 ELFE 05112116 Approach for school visits Data collection and reporting structured according to analysis questions. Per school: -Narrative report: for use by school and to be placed on ELFE website -Structured data report: for cross-case analysis Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

17 ELFE 05112117 Findings – ICT use & infrastructure Important educational goals for using ICT: (i)to develop students independence and responsibility for own learning (ii)to promote active learning strategies (individualizing, projects, etc) (iii)to improve student achievement (iv)to prepare students for future jobs. school leaders: good balance between what is traditionally valued and what is considered important in the 21st century Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

18 ELFE 05112118 Findings – ICT use & infrastructure ICT related policies: -Students can access external databases via WWW -Majority of schools: teachers and students can email via school -Many schools relieved teaching load for few teachers to support colleagues (10/14) -Most schools address issue of norms and values in using Internet/WWW (12/14) Only 8/14 schools have written policy! Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

19 ELFE 05112119 Findings – ICT use & infrastructure Hardware -Most schools stud:comp ratio <6 -Mostly multimedia computers in LAN with access to Internet and WWW -Placed in various locations – special areas for individual and small group work important! – often a problem -Peripherals adequate for use NOTE: innovativeness of ICT use not dependent on amount of ICT! Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

20 ELFE 05112120 Findings – ICT use & infrastructure Software All schools software according to need: (i)general application software (ii)digital learning resources ( esp for math, sciences, languages, informatics ) (iii)network/communication tools, (iv)computer and digital tools: Learning and communication platforms (like Digital Brain, ClassFronter, First Class) are crucial in realising major innovations Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

21 ELFE 05112121 Findings – ICT use & infrastructure Support Support a key factor! -Integration of ICT in T/L evokes need for new type of support (staff) in schools -Both technical and pedagogical support staff needed Sometimes: techn support at municpl/ regional level, but also schools without Often: relieved teaching load for few teachers to support colleagues (10/14) Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

22 ELFE 05112122 Findings – ICT use & infrastructure Staff development Another key factor! -Almost all schools (13/14) have policies and provide facilities -often outside school -often regionally/locally co-ordinated -In most schools distinction between focus on ICT (ECDL) and pedagogical use of ICT (PCDL) -In DK, EN, NW: national policy! Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

23 ELFE 05112123 Findings – Experiences of schools Not school descriptions! But: Observations and conclusions from interviews and questionnaires Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

24 ELFE 05112124 Findings – Experiences of schools Does use of ICT make a difference? Learning goals changed to some extent : next to traditional subjects, new ones such as promoting active learning, and developing independent learning skills, information handling skills, communication and collaboration skills Content changed to some extent : -new methods become new content -also integration of subjects in project-based learning Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

25 ELFE 05112125 Findings – Experiences of schools Does use of ICT make a difference? (cont) New materials and resources: web-based, via systems like Digital Brain, via communication with experts, teacher development and exchange, etc. Changes in grouping: indiv and small grp learning – communctn facilitated by ICT! NOTES: -variation in methods increases with use of ICT -studs in one school: small group work more on how to work, less on content part Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

26 ELFE 05112126 Findings – Experiences of schools Does use of ICT make a difference? (cont) Changes in location and time: -project-based and independent learning supported by ICT often outside classroom; also often not according to school time table (e.g. project weeks/days) Infrastructure important: -Learning & communication platforms -Physical environment of/in school Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

27 ELFE 05112127 Findings – Experiences of schools Does use of ICT make a difference? (cont) Also totally new forms of arranging T/L: e.g. in Norway: distance education approaches – form of distributed learning in upper 2 nd vocational educ: students work from home and do internships at local busineses, whilst communicating with teachers via @ - only few times per year to the school. Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

28 ELFE 05112128 Findings – Experiences of schools Does use of ICT make a difference? (cont) Changes in student assessment & evaluation Not much changed! Although examples: -electronic portfolios (projects, indiv tasks) -software tools for formative evaluation -in DK use of computer in final exams Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

29 ELFE 05112129 Findings – Experiences of schools Does use of ICT make a difference? (cont) Changes in student assessment & evaluation But also in number of schools: national paper and pencil examinations conserve traditional methods of teaching and assessing students progress! NW school: no approval from govt to use ICT in final exams, where all stud evaluation is ICT-based => experienced as problem! Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

30 ELFE 05112130 Findings – Experiences of schools: Teachers perspective Important to realise: Integration of ICT in T/L combined with adapting to needs of 21 st century (new competencies) is complex, multidimensional change: -change in materials -change in pedagogical methods -change in beliefs of what is good education Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

31 ELFE 05112131 Findings – Experiences of schools: Teachers perspective Vision on teaching and learning: - teachers clearly support 21st century goals (such as acquire 'productive' skills, problem solving skills, independent learning skills and/or skills for life long learning such as information handling, collaboration and communication skills) - where management & communication platforms are used ICT also used to enhance teaching (e.g. less admin tasks) Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

32 ELFE 05112132 Findings – Experiences of schools: Teachers perspective Approaches to teaching and learning – one scenario emerges: project-based learning: small groups or indiv tasks with teachers in role of facilitator: - ICT provides studs with access to a variety of resources (via Internet &WWW). - often multidisciplinary projects in which teachers of various subjects are collaborating in supporting and coaching Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

33 ELFE 05112133 Findings – Experiences of schools: Teachers perspective Approaches to teaching and learning – project-based learning scenario : - students are challenged to develop and/or apply new skills, such as information handling – problem solving - collaboration, communication & presentation skills Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

34 ELFE 05112134 Findings – Experiences of schools: Teachers perspective Approaches to teaching and learning project-based learning – a observations: - Teachers using platforms consider these indispensable! - in some countries this approach part of natl policy – but ELFE teachers convinced! Some warnings by students: - Teacher is not as rich in comp room - Tchers assume studs can work in projects Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

35 ELFE 05112135 Findings – Experiences of schools: Teachers perspective Perception of impact of ICT (i)students are better motivated, having increased self-esteem and developing new competences (ii)in some cases better learning results are mentioned (often impressions) (iii)the more open relationships with students is much appreciated, and (iv)teachers experience the collaboration with other teachers as enriching. Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

36 ELFE 05112136 Findings – Experiences of schools: Teachers perspective Perception of impact of ICT - Warning: students who cannot organize themselves have problems with project- based learning – need extra attention! - in many schools: teachers mention lack of interest or even disagreement of number of colleagues - gender issue: technology not for women? Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

37 ELFE 05112137 Findings – Experiences of schools: Students perspective Students say that they do the following: - collaborative learning (projects) with ICT - communication (with teachers, sometimes with peers in other countries) - use WWW for searching information - sometimes: teach teachers and help peers Students like using ICT and have no problems working with it Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

38 ELFE 05112138 Findings – Experiences of schools: Students perspective Some concerns: - Students in one school: evaluation of own work when working in small groups! Some principals and teachers about studs: - Students copy from websites and each other - Skills to evaluate quality of web-based materials have to be developed - Students tend to forget other (non-ICT) learning resources Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

39 ELFE 05112139 Findings – Experiences of schools: Students problems on ICT skills: - Introduction to computers and (complicated) software only at beginning of school year is not enough! - Keyboard skills lacking - Differences in ICT skills may frustrate collaboration in projects Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

40 ELFE 05112140 Findings – Experiences of schools: Students problems on motivation and methods: - Too much ICT may become boring – mixed methods preferred (UK school) - Methods of working on ICT-related task too prescribed (PT school) BUT dominant feature: students like working with ICT! Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

41 ELFE 05112141 Findings – Experiences of schools: Students problems on infrastructure: - In some schools: wish to have more computers and copies of software -In some schools: computers old and system slow General: schools may have problems to keep infrastr up-to-date, whilst many students have at home newest equipmt Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

42 ELFE 05112142 Findings – Experiences of schools: Influencing factors Already mentioned: - Good infrastructure - Support for teachers (technical, pedagog) - Staff development: policy + facilities (e.g. tims for external course, site visits, etc) Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

43 ELFE 05112143 Findings – Experiences of schools: Influencing factors Further: - Clear vision, policy and strategy of what school want to accomplish - Supportive leadership in school - Monitoring the processes of change - ICT becoming part of schools culture Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

44 ELFE 05112144 Findings – Experiences of schools: Influencing factors ICT becoming part of schools culture -not fully realized in all schools BUT esp in schools with learning mangmt & communication platforms ICT has contributed to new school culture and to school development e.g. other communication patterns, other relationships between teachers, and teachers and students. Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

45 ELFE 05112145 Findings – Experiences of schools: Influencing factors External factors: - national, regional and/or local policies and support (financial, facilities) - parents and (in some cases) local communities supportive- although not always clear how this goes beyond liking and welcoming developments - BUT vocational schools much support from local business and industry (NW & GM) Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

46 ELFE 05112146 Findings – Experiences of schools: Sustainability Developments in all schools are sustainable: -intensive use of ICT for teaching and learning is accepted in the school and has a fixed position in it; -whilst there are no outside obstacles for keeping this situation alive. Although some concerns in some schools Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

47 ELFE 05112147 Findings – Experiences of schools: Sustainability Some concerns mentioned: -Part of teachers has not for me attitude -Sufficient freedom in developing innovative pedagogy centralizes systems? -Sufficient structural budgets to update and expand infrastructure? -Not only for hardware/software, but also to develop proper support structure Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

48 ELFE 05112148 Aim #2: transferring good practices to other schools and countries Method: school-to-school visits (2 teachers) - Good first step in disseminating good practices, but too soon to observe effects - Visits illuminating for most schools: -Could see other policies and practices -Could value own position – often not only different, but also better on certain aspects. Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

49 ELFE 05112149 Aim #2: transferring good practices to other schools and countries: a few observations from countries with centralized educ system: - EN teachers in NW: pupils greater independence from teachers, and teachers greater independence from national curriculum: it can work! - PT teachers: centralized education system limits developing flexible and multidisciplinary T/L environments Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

50 ELFE 05112150 Aim #2: transferring good practices to other schools and countries: a few observations - Importance of schools having a policy and strategic plan to guide educational renewal and utilization of ICT - With good technical and pedagogical support teachers can indeed focus on their core task: teaching utilizing ICT Also: admiration and contradictions Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

51 ELFE 05112151 Thank you! Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

52 ELFE 05112152 Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

53 ELFE 05112153 Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

54 ELFE 05112154 Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE

55 ELFE 05112155 Conference 21-22 November2005 ELFE


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