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Brain Circulation : Korean Experience Misug JIN Senior Fellow Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training(KRIVET)

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Presentation on theme: "Brain Circulation : Korean Experience Misug JIN Senior Fellow Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training(KRIVET)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Brain Circulation : Korean Experience Misug JIN Senior Fellow Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training(KRIVET)

2 2 I. II. IV. III. Introduction Brain Circulation in Korea Strategies Policy Direction

3 . Introduction Advancement to knowledge-based economy-> high skills and knowledge-> the highly Skilled in R&D and service area The Highly skilled HR really matter Increased the international mobility of the highly skilled. War for Talents 3 Why the issue, international mobility of Human resources important? Why the issue, international mobility of Human resources important?

4 4 The Change of perspective on the international mobility of the highly skilled Direction Win – or – Lose Win – Win Permanent Multiple, Transitional Return home / Blocking Brain drain Global Collaboration Diaspora Developing Advan. Advan. Advan. developing Benefits Pattern Strategies Brain Drain Brain Circulation

5 5 Positive effect Negative effect Positive effect Brain gain by return of natives Increased ties to global networks Remittances and venture capital from diaspora networks Increased incentive for natives to see higher skills Negative effect Shortage of HR Lower returns from public investment in tertiary education Decreased incentive of natives to train higher skills Crowd out native students from best schools Technology transfers to foreign competitors Increased R&D/economic activity Entrepreneurship Foster diversity and creativity Export technology Increased enrolment in graduate programmes Wage moderation Sending countries Receiving countries

6 GLOBAL EFFECTS Development knowledge and R&D by better international flows of knowledge Better job matches, Increase individual human capital investments. 6

7 II. Brain Circulation in KoreaForeignPh.Ds Domestic Ph.Ds Total Ph.Ds % of foreign Ph.D ,5133,6565, ,4629,89913, ,02817,55024, ,16724,96433, ,81536,37444, Korea: one of the brain gain countries: by sending and returning Starting to receive foreign students: In 2006, 2,173 foreign students in doctoral program in Korea. 2% of all graduate programs 7 1. From Brain Gain country to Brain Circulation one

8 Comprehensive Korean Policies in 1970s for attracting expatriate S&Es: It did Work!! Provided excellent job opportunities -Establish national research centers such as KIST(Korea Institute for Science and Technology) or KDI(Korea Development Institute) and KAIST(Korea Advanced Institute for Science and Technology) -Intensive Support(higher salary) Provide Housing and excellent Opportunities for childrens education -best elementary schools under best universities Respect for S&E as patriots by government - Strong Will of the Powerful President But not any more 8

9 9 2. The number of Korean Ph.Ds in USA During last 20 years, about 1,300-1,500 Korean Ph.Ds a year The second largest foreign countries –3%of Total US Ph.Ds. –20%of foreign Ph.Ds ( China Korea) Ph. Ds a year in S&T-60% Of total Korean expatriate Ph.D, US doctorate more than 60%

10 10 The trend of Korean Ph.Ds of total US Ph.Ds

11 Selected Human Resources - From high family SES - Selective Colleges gradauated High Satisfaction on US Graduate Programs: - Quality of curriculum - Financial assistance 11 Characteristics of Korean Ph.D

12 12 Comparison of Satisfaction of Graduate Programs of Korean and US Ph.Ds Comparison of Satisfaction of Graduate Programs of Korean and US Ph.Ds

13 The proportion to plan to return home on completing degree has been decreased 2004, 26% of S&T; 46% of Non S&T The Return Plan of Korean Ph.Ds Return Plan on Completion of Ph.D

14 High: China, India Low: Japan, Taiwan, South Africa. 14 Stay plan rate of selected countries Korea Japan China India Taiwan South Africa

15 15 Stay Rates Actual return rate : 5 years after degree completion 66% of 1998 Ph.D Cohort, 89% in cohort. Much higher than the return plan rate, 40% 4. Actual Return Rate of Korean Ph.Ds

16 16 5. The Interpretation of the trend of Korean Ph.Ds Stay Rates From Korean government perspective, is this return rate too low to be worried? Difficult to evaluate! Dependent on three questions; 1) Who are staying and why? 2) Permanent or Temporary? 3) The quantity and Quality of Collaboration and Linkage of expatriate Ph.Ds with home colleagues

17 /881990/911992/931994/ China India Taiwan Japan Korea All countries Sources: Finn,M( ).Stay Rate Foreign Doctorate Recipients from US University Stay Rates of foreign Ph.Ds in USA 5 years after degree completion by countries (%) Lower than other foreign countries One third of Chinese, Indian Ph.Ds stay rates Not too high rate of stay Lower than other foreign countries One third of Chinese, Indian Ph.Ds stay rates Not too high rate of stay

18 18 75% of Ph.Ds in S&T received (or plan to receive) Post-doc. Of Post-doc planner, 90% choose for Post-doc program in USA Post-doc makes one factor to postpone the return of Korean Ph.Ds High Proportion of Ph.Ds reveals preference to work in higher education Postpone Returning: High proportion of Post-doc of Korean Ph.Ds Postpone Returning: High proportion of Post-doc of Korean Ph.Ds

19 Favorable Job Market Cultural factors: patriotism, family-duties Research Condition facilities, Work (research) climate or environment Quality of Education for children Quality of life: environment, housing costs 19 Pushing factors Pulling factors 6. Factors of Returning (Staying abroad) One out of five Ph.Ds said I have to return for my parent Now, I d like to go home and to do service for my homeland expatriate scientists in his early fifities Complex factors :cultural, educational as well as economic factor:

20 The relatedness of work to their specialty is higher The level of work requirement is more relevant to doctoral degree Higher job satisfaction Especially low job satisfaction for Ph.Ds employed in Korean companies 20 The level of jobs requirement Better working condition for Ph.Ds in USA

21 21 LowerSameHigherOthers LowerSameHigherOthers 54.6% %2.8% [Research Productivity] [Quality of Life] If you had returned, what happen to your research and quality of life… If you had returned, what happen to your research and quality of life…

22 22 Reason to move to foreign countries of returned Ph.Ds 14.1 For professional development 19.2 For childrens better education 6.4 To live permanently Total 46.2 Better working (research) environment 3.8 Higher income 10.3 More Job opportunities(%) Reason

23 III. Policy Direction Closed, nationalistic Recruiting only Quantity Short-term and disparate policies -Buying HR Open, global sourcing Utilization as well Quality long-term and comprehensive HR policies -Buying and Making HR 23 Brain GainBrain Circulation

24 24 IV. Strategies Strengthen the competitiveness of Korean Universities Improving the work/research climate to utilize the globally highly skilled R&D experts Strengthen the foreign network to improve collaboration Facilitate the global cooperating for research Support living conditions for foreigners 5 5

25 Low Competitiveness of Korean Universities: 3 Korean Uni. Among 100 top universities -high achievement of Korean youth (PISA, TIMMS) -Bottleneck of Educational Development -quality of higher education maintain talented Korean students in Korea as well as inviting foreign students into Korea. Financial Support for higher education -R&D Program Brain Korea 21:-provide research fund for universites 20 billion US$ during last 10years -Enhancing Educational capacities Financial Support for universities of good quality of eduation Since 2009, 30 billion KRW(9 0million US $) each year 25 Strengthen the competitiveness of Korean Universities

26 The working and research culture -closed, hierarchical, top-down approach -> hinder creativity of global talents open, free, bottom up, and long-term perspective This is not easy one;-need training programs for managers and leaders in S&T related organization 26 Improving the work/research climate to utilize the globally highly skilled R&D experts

27 Strengthen the Expatriate Korean network to improve collaboration 13 Korean Expatriate Science and Engineers Associations -> government financial Support for these associations Active collaboration and networking with KASEA KASEA(Korean American Scientiscts and Engeneers Association) Young Generation Forum (invite young scientists and engineers with Korean origin) 27

28 Facilitate the global cooperating for research Collaborative Research Funds -Invite Foreign Research Lab-Branch eg) Pasteur Research Lab - Establish a branch center in Europe or USA Brain Pool System Invite young scientists and engineers (Postdoc for foreign Ph.D-> mostly Ph.D from Asian countries Competition for brains( esp. Post doc level) with Japan(agressively invite foreign S&E) 28

29 Support living conditions for foreigners Closed and unfriendly atmosphere toward foreigners Language problem Education and housing support Childrens education: expensive and competitve- disincentive for coming to Korea Housing: high costs On –line and off-line One stop centers for foreign S&Es Information, counseling 29

30 Strategies for attracting expatriate Korean S&E based on Career Development Stages Most Effective target group; S&E who have passed their peak in their careers -> They are ready to be attracted. Use their expertise for consulting or management. 30

31 31 ` average Strategies for cooperation Establish research cluster for global talented researchers 2.98 Invite foreign LAB2.7 Establish Korean research center abraod2.92 Support for expatriate Korean researcher network3.05 Joint project with Korean and foreign research team3.28 Strategies to improve Work Environment Support for Childrens education3.36 Support for spouses employment3.14 Improving research environ Ease for immigration rules for expatriates research3.01 Support for short-term, midterm staying places3.27 Open public funded research to expatriates3.29 Allow combine professorship in Korea and abroad3.38 Dual nationality3.3 Opinion of expatriate Ph.Ds for global talented researchers

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