Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time."— Presentation transcript:
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: EcologyEcology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and BiomesCommunities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Lifes Diversity
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease
Unit Overview – pages Ecology Principles of Ecology Communities and Biomes Population Biology Biological Diversity and Conservation
Chapter Intro-page 64 What Youll Learn You will identify factors that limit the existence of species to certain areas. You will describe how and why different communities form. You will compare and contrast biomes of Earth.
3.1 Section Objectives – page 65 Identify some common limiting factors. Section Objectives: Explain how limiting factors and ranges of tolerance affect distribution of organisms. Sequence the stages of ecological succession. Describe the conditions under which primary and secondary succession take place.
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Various combinations of abiotic and biotic factors interact in different places around the world. Life in a Community
Section 3.1 Summary – pages The result is that conditions in one part of the world are suitable for supporting certain forms of life, but not others. Life in a Community
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Factors that affect an organisms ability to survive in its environment, such as the availability of water and food, predators, and temperature, are called limiting factors. Limiting factors
Section 3.1 Summary – pages A limiting factor is any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms. Common Limiting Factors Sunlight Climate Atmospheric gases Temperature Water Nutrients/Food Fire Soil chemistry Space Other organisms Limiting factors
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Limiting factors Factors that limit one population in a community may also have an indirect effect on another population.
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Ranges of tolerance The ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors is known as tolerance. Limits of Tolerance Organisms absent Organisms infrequent Greatest number of organisms Organisms infrequent Organisms absent Zone of intolerance Zone of Physiological stress Optimum range Lower limitUpper limit Range of tolerance Population Zone of Physiological stress Zone of intolerance
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Succession: Changes over Time Ecologists refer to the orderly, natural changes and species replacements that take place in the communities of an ecosystem as succession. Succession occurs in stages. At each stage, different species of plants and animals may be present.
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Succession: Changes over Time As succession progresses, new organisms move in. Others may die out or move out. There are two types of successionprimary and secondary.
Section 3.1 Summary – pages The colonization of barren land by communities of organisms is called primary succession. Primary succession takes place on land where there are no living organisms. Primary succession
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Primary succession The first species to take hold in an area like this are called pioneer species. An example of pioneer species is a lichen, which is a combination of small organisms.
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Decaying lichens, along with bits of sediment in cracks and crevices of rock, make up the first stage of soil development. New soil makes it possible for small weedy plants, small ferns, fungi, and insects to become established. Primary succession
Section 3.1 Summary – pages As these organisms die, more soil builds. Exposed rock Primary succession Moss Lichen Pioneer species Primary succession
Section 3.1 Summary – pages After some time, primary succession slows down and the community becomes fairly stable, or reaches equilibrium. Primary succession
Section 3.1 Summary – pages A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species is a climax community. Secondary succession Climax community Primary succession
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Secondary succession Secondary succession is the sequence of changes that takes place after an existing community is severely disrupted in some way. Secondary succession, however, occurs in areas that previously contained life, and on land that still contains soil.
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Secondary succession Because soil already exists, secondary succession may take less time than primary succession to reach a climax community.
Section 1 Check Question 1 D. limiting factor C. tolerance factor B. biotic factor A. abiotic factor A(n) _____ is something that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction or distribution of organisms.
Section 1 Check The answer is D. A limiting factor may be a abiotic factor. Tolerance refers to an organisms ability to withstand fluctuations of environmental factors. Common Limiting Factors Sunlight Climate Atmospheric gases Temperature Water Nutrients/Food Fire Soil chemistry Space Other organisms
Section 1 Check Question 2 D. mature trees growing C. pine seedlings sprouting B. wildflowers growing where forest fires had burned A. lichen growing on a lava bed Which of the following best illustrates primary succession?
Section 1 Check The answer is A. Primary succession is the colonization of barren land by pioneer species, such as moss or lichens.
Section 1 Check Question 3 What is required in order for secondary succession to occur?
Section 1 Check Secondary succession occurs in areas that previously contained life. Soil must be present on this land, and the species that grow will differ from pioneer species.
Section 1 Check Question 4 D. estuary C. climax community B. primary community A. photic zone A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species is a(n) _____.
Section 1 Check The answer is C. Even though a climax community is stable, balanced change continues. Secondary succession Climax community
3.2 Section Objectives – page 70 Compare and contrast the photic and aphotic zones of marine biomes. Section Objectives: Identify the major limiting factors affecting distribution of terrestrial biomes. Distinguish among biomes.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community. There are terrestrial biomes and aquatic biomes, each with organisms adapted to the conditions characteristic of the biome. What is a biome?
Section 3.2 Summary – pages What is a biome? Biomes located on land are called terrestrial biomes. Oceans, lakes, streams, ponds, or other bodies of water are aquatic biomes.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Aquatic Biomes Approximately 75 percent of Earths surface is covered with water. Most of that water is salty. Freshwater is confined to rivers, streams, ponds, and most lakes. As a result, aquatic biomes are separated into marine biomes and freshwater biomes.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Different parts of the ocean differ in biotic and abiotic factors (salinity, depth, availability of light, and temperature) found there. One of the ways ecologists study marine biomes is to make separate observations in shallow, sunlit zones and deeper, unlighted zones. Marine biomes
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Marine biomes The portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate is called the photic zone.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Marine biomes Deeper water that never receives sunlight makes up the aphotic zone.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages An estuary is a coastal body of water, partially surrounded by land, in which freshwater and salt water mix. The salinity, or amount of salt, in an estuary ranges between that of seawater and that of freshwater, and depends on how much freshwater the river brings into the estuary. EstuariesMixed waters
Section 3.2 Summary – pages EstuariesMixed waters Estuaries, may contain salt marsh ecosystems, which are dominated by salt-tolerant smooth cordgrass, salt marsh hay, or eelgrasses.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Daily, the gravitational pull of the sun and moon causes the rise and fall of ocean tides. The portion of the shoreline that lies between the high and low tide lines is called the intertidal zone. Intertidal ecosystems have high levels of sunlight, nutrients, and oxygen. The effects of tides
Section 3.2 Summary – pages The effects of tides Intertidal zones differ in rockiness and wave action. If the shore is rocky, waves constantly threaten to wash organisms into deeper water.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages If the shore is sandy, wave action keeps the bottom in constant motion. The effects of tides
Section 3.2 Summary – pages The photic zone of the marine biome includes the vast expanse of open ocean that covers most of Earths surface. Most of the organisms that live in the marine biome are plankton. In the light
Section 3.2 Summary – pages In the light Plankton are small organisms that drift and float in the waters of the photic zone.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages In the light Plankton are important because they form the base of all aquatic food chains. Baleen whales and whale sharks, some of the largest organisms that have ever lived, consume vast amounts of plankton.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Although the summer sun heats the surface of a lake the water a few feet below the surface remains cold. These temperature variations within a lake are an abiotic factor that limits the kinds of organisms that can survive in deep lakes. Freshwater biomes
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Freshwater biomes Another abiotic factor that limits life in deep lakes is light. Greatest Warmer layer Colder layer Least Greatest species diversity Oxygen and light penetration
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Other aquatic biomes Other places where land and water meet are called wetlands, but there are several different kinds of wetlands. Swamps have trees. Marshes do not, but both usually have water flowing through them. Other wetland areas, called bogs, get their water supply from rain. Water does not flow through bogs.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Terrestrial Biomes: Latitude and climate Latitude describes your position in degrees north and south of the equator. O North pole South pole Suns rays Equator 66.5 o 23.5 o o 0
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Terrestrial Biomes: Latitude and climate At different latitudes, the sun strikes Earth differently. O North pole South pole Suns rays Equator 66.5 o 23.5 o o 0
Section 3.2 Summary – pages As a result, the climatewind, cloud cover, temperature, humidity and precipitation in that areaare different. Terrestrial Biomes: Latitude and climate
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Terrestrial Biomes: Latitude and climate Latitude and climate are abiotic factors that affect what plants and animals will survive in a given area. Annual precipitation (cm) Tundra Taiga Temperate forest Woodland Savanna Desert Tropical seasonal forest Tropical rain forest Temperate rain forest Average temperature ( o C) Annual Precipitation vs. Temperature for Various Biomes Grassland Shrubland
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life on the tundra The tundra is a treeless land with long summer days and short periods of winter sunlight.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life on the tundra Because of its latitude, temperatures in the tundra never rise above freezing for long, and only the topmost layer of soil thaws during the summer. Underneath this top layer is a layer of permanently frozen ground called permafrost. The soil is lacking in nutrients.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life on the tundra Lack of nutrients limits the types of organisms the tundra can support. The short growing season limits the type of plants found in this biome to grasses, dwarf shrubs, and cushion plants.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life on the tundra Hordes of mosquitoes and black-flies are some of the most common tundra insects during the short summer. The tundra also is home to a variety of small mammals, including ratlike lemmings, weasels, arctic foxes, snowshoe hares, and even birds such as snowy owls and hawks.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life on the tundra Musk oxen, caribou and reindeer are among the few large animals that migrate into the area and graze during the summer months.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life on the taiga Just south of the tundra lies another biome that circles the north pole. The taiga (TI guh) also is called the boreal or northern coniferous forest.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Common trees are larch, fir, hemlock, and spruce trees. Life on the taiga
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Because of their latitude, taiga communities usually are somewhat warmer and wetter than tundra. Life on the taiga
Section 3.2 Summary – pages The topsoil, which develops slowly from decaying coniferous needles, is acidic and poor in minerals. However, the prevailing climatic conditions are still harsh, with long, severe winters and short, mild summers. Life on the taiga
Section 3.2 Summary – pages More large species of animals are found in the taiga as compared with the tundra. Life on the taiga
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in the desert The driest biome is the desert biome. A desert is an arid region with sparse to almost nonexistent plant life.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Deserts usually get less than 25 cm of precipitation annually. Life in the desert
Section 3.2 Summary – pages With rainfall as the major limiting factor, vegetation in deserts varies greatly. The driest deserts are drifting sand dunes. Life in the desert
Section 3.2 Summary – pages The leaves of some desert plants curl up, or even drop off altogether, thus reducing water loss during extremely dry spells. Many desert plants are annuals that germinate from seed and grow to maturity quickly after sporadic rainfall. Many desert mammals are small herbivores that remain under cover during the heat of the day, emerging at night to forage on plants. Life in the desert
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Coyotes, hawks, owls and roadrunners are carnivores that feed on the snakes, lizards, and small mammals of the desert. Life in the desert
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in the grassland Grasslands are large communities covered with rich soil, grasses, and similar plants.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Grasslands, occur principally in climates that experience a dry season, where insufficient water exists to support forests. Grasslands contain few trees per hectare. Life in the grassland
Section 3.2 Summary – pages The soils of grasslands have considerable humus content because many grasses die off each winter, leaving byproducts to decay and build up in the soil. At certain times of the year, many grasslands are populated by herds of grazing animals. Life in the grassland
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Other important prairie animals include jack rabbits, deer, elk, and prairie dogs. Many species of insects, birds, and reptiles, also make their homes in grasslands. Life in the grassland
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in the temperate forest When precipitation ranges from about 70 to 150 cm annually in the temperate zone, temperate deciduous forests develop.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Temperate or deciduous forests are dominated by broad-leaved hardwood trees that lose their foliage annually. The soil of temperate forests usually consists of a top layer that is rich in humus and a deeper layer of clay. Life in the temperate forest
Section 3.2 Summary – pages The animals that live in the temperate deciduous forest include squirrels, mice, rabbits, deer, and bears. Life in the temperate forest
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Many birds, such as bluejays, live in the forest all year long, whereas other birds migrate seasonally. Life in the temperate forest
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in rain forests Temperate rain forests are found on the Olympic peninsula in Washington state and in other places throughout the world, such as South America, New Zealand, and Australia. There are two types of rain forests in the worldthe temperate rain forest and the more widely known tropical rain forest.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages As their name implies, tropical rain forests have warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth. Life in rain forests
Section 3.2 Summary – pages The average temperature is about 25 0 C. Life in rain forests
Section 3.2 Summary – pages One reason for the large number of niches in rain forests is vertical layering. Rain forests receive at least 200 cm of rain annually; some rain forests receive 600 cm. Life in rain forests
Section 3.2 Summary – pages The tree tops are exposed to rain, sunlight, and strong winds. The canopy layer, meters high, is a living roof. A few giant trees called emergents pole through the canopy. A Tropical Rain Forest: Canopy
Section 3.2 Summary – pages A Tropical Rain Forest: Canopy Birds, such as scarlet macaws, live on the fruits and nuts of the trees. Monkeys frequently pass through.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Leaf cutter ants harvest leaves and bring them to the ground. In the understory, the air is still, humid, and dark. Vines grow from the soil to the canopy. Plants include ferns, broad-leaved shrubs, and dwarf palms. A Tropical Rain Forest: Understory
Section 3.2 Summary – pages The limbs of the trees are hung with a thick layer of epiphytes, plants that get most of their moisture from the air. Insects are common in the understory. Birds and bats prey upon the insects. A Tropical Rain Forest: Understory
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Reptiles include chameleons and snakes. Tree frogs are common understory amphibians. A Tropical Rain Forest: Understory
Section 3.2 Summary – pages A Tropical Rain Forest: Ground Leaves and other organic materials decay quickly. The ground layer is a moist forest floor. Roots spread throughout the top 18 inches of soil There is great competition for nutrients.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages A Tropical Rain Forest: Ground Ants, termites, earthworms, bacteria, and fungi live in the soil and quickly decompose organic materials. Mammals living on the ground include rodents and cats, such as the jaguar.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in rain forests Some rain forest plants are important sources of medicinal products and hardwood trees and have provided a source of income for people.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in rain forests Agricultural land is not common in rain forests.
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in rain forests Without organic matter, once rain forest soil is exposed and farmed, it becomes hard, almost brick-like, and nutrient-poor in a matter of a few years. Soils in rain forests do not have substantial amounts of organic matter because leaf matter, which contains nutrients, disappears so quickly.
Section 2 Check Question 1 D. populations C. terrestrial B. biomes A. stable Groups of ecosystems that reach similar climax communities are ________.
Section 2 Check The answer is B. There are terrestrial and aquatic biomes, each with organisms adapted to the characteristics of the biome.
Section 2 Check Question 2 Explain the difference between the photic and aphotic zones of a marine biome.
Section 2 Check The photic zone is the part of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate. Deeper water that never receives sunlight makes up the aphotic zone.
Section 2 Check Question 3 Compare an estuary to an intertidal zone.
Section 2 Check Estuaries are coastal bodies of water that form where rivers meet oceans, and in which freshwater and salt water mix. Intertidal zones are the portions of ocean shorelines that lie between the high and low tide lines.
Section 2 Check Question 4 D. plankton C. barnacles B. foraminiferans A. tide pool collections The floating protists, animal eggs and larvae in the photic zone are known as ________.
Section 2 Check The answer is D. Plankton are small organisms that drift in the photic zone and form the base of all aquatic food chains.
Section 2 Check Question 5 Describe the oxygen levels at different depths of a freshwater lake.
Section 2 Check Shallower waters are exposed to more sunlight, are warmer and contain more oxygen. Deeper layers are colder and contain less oxygen.
Section 2 Check Question 6 D. desert C. savanna B. taiga A. tropical rain forest Which of the following biomes has the lowest annual precipitation?
Section 2 Check The answer is D. Deserts are the driest biomes.
Chapter Summary – 3.1 Communities, populations, and individual organisms interact in areas where biotic or abiotic factors fall within their range of tolerance. Abiotic or biotic factors that define whether or not an organism can survive are limiting factors. Communities
Chapter Summary – 3.1 The sequential development of living communities from bare rock is an example of primary succession. Secondary succession occurs when communities are disrupted. Left undisturbed, both primary succession and secondary succession will eventually result in a climax community which can last for hundreds of years. Communities
Chapter Summary – 3.2 Biomes are large areas that have characteristic climax communities. Aquatic biomes may be marine or freshwater. Estuaries occur at the boundaries of marine and freshwater biomes. Approximately three-quarters of Earths surface is covered by aquatic biomes, and the vast majority of these are marine communities. Biomes
Chapter Summary – 3.2 Terrestrial biomes include tundra, taiga, desert, grassland, deciduous forest, and temperate and tropical rain forests. Latitude influences the angle at which the sun reaches Earth and is a strong factor in determining what a particular biome is like. Two climatic factors, temperature and precipitation, are major limiting factors for the information of terrestrial biomes. Biomes
Chapter Assessment Question 1 Grasslands are another name for which of the following? D. temperate forest C. tundra B. taiga A. savannas
Chapter Assessment The answer is A. Grasslands are also called prairies, steppes, pampas, and savannas.
Chapter Assessment Question 2 Monthly temperature range ( 0 C) Monthly precipitation (cm) Key
Chapter Assessment The answer is C. Because tropical rain forests are near the equator, they have consistently warm temperatures. Monthly temperature range ( 0 C) Monthly precipitation (cm) Key
Chapter Assessment Question 3 In which layer of a tropical rain forest are you most likely to find tree frogs? D. root C. ground B. understory A. canopy
Chapter Assessment The answer is B. Insects, amphibians and reptiles are commonly found in the understory.
Chapter Assessment Question 4 Describe the importance of bacteria in a healthy ecosystem. Answer Bacteria help decay dead organisms and releases nutrients, recycling them through the food web.
Chapter Assessment Question 5 As you travel north from a tropical rain forest, what are some of the variations you would observe? Answer As you travel north, you would observe decreasing average temperatures and drier weather. Biodiversity would decrease.
Chapter Assessment Question 6 In which biome would you expect the greatest biomass? D. taiga C. desert B. temperate deciduous forest A. tropical rain forest
Chapter Assessment The answer is A. In tropical rain forests, sunlight, moisture and nutrients are available in abundance. These biomes are the most species-rich places on Earth, and the biomass is high.
Chapter Assessment Question 7 In which biome would you expect to find only shallow-rooted grasses and small plants? D. tundra C. taiga B. deciduous forest A. grassland
Chapter Assessment The answer is D. Tundra has little topsoil and lacks nutrients.
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