2Review of DiffusionMovement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
3Osmosis Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Controlled by concentration gradients.Regulation of osmosis by the cell maintains homeostasis.
4Cells in Isotonic Solutions Concentration of both dissolved substances and water in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances and water in the cell.Osmosis occurs with water diffusing in and out of the cell at the same rate.Cell retains its original shape.
6Cells in Hypotonic Solutions Concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell.More water outside the cell than inside the cell.Water moves through the plasma membrane into the cell.Cell swells and the internal pressure increases.
8Cells in Hypotonic Solutions If the solution is extremely hypotonic, pressure may be so great that animal cells may burst.Plant cells will not usually burst because they contain a rigid cell wall against which the plasma membrane is pressed, causing the cell to become more firm.
9Cells in Hypertonic Solutions Concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell.Water is greater inside the cell and flows out of the cell across the plasma membrane.
11Cells in Hypertonic Solutions Animal cells will shrivel because of the decreased pressure.The cell wall maintains the shape of plant cells, but the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall, causing the plant to wilt.
12Passive TransportMovement of particles across the membrane in which the cell does not need to use energy to move particles.2 Main Types:Simple DiffusionFacilitated Diffusion
14Facilitated Diffusion Passive transport of materials across the membrane using transport proteins.Two types of transport proteins:Channel ProteinsCarrier Proteins
15Channel Proteins Type of transport protein. Form channels that allow specific molecules to flow through.Movement of material is with the concentration gradient.No energy input by the cell is required.
16Carrier ProteinsChange shape to allow a substance to pass through the plasma membrane.
17Active TransportMovement of particles from a region of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration (against the concentration gradient.Cell must expend energy to counteract the force of diffusion moving particles in opposite direction.
18Steps in Active Transport Carrier protein bonds with the substance to be transported.In general, each type of carrier protein has a shape that fits a specific molecule or ion.When the proper molecule bonds with the protein, chemical energy allows the cell to change the shape of the carrier protein.
19Steps in Active Transport The substance to be moved is released on the other side of the protein.The original shape of the protein is restored.
21EndocytosisProcess by which a cell surrounds and takes in material from its environment.The material doesn’t pass through the membrane but is engulfed by a portion of the plasma membrane.The portion of the plasma membrane then breaks away and the resulting vacuole, along with its contents, moves to the inside of the cell.