Pre-transition model National government School governing body School principal Teachers Students Parents School governing body Regional/local government
Previous study (phase 1) Principals perception: Parents engagement in school life is contributing to: Educational attainment of pupils School atmosphere Parents involvement in school governance Limited efforts on school side Limited effectiveness of parents engagement in meaningful ways due to: Lack of parents interest Lack of parents time Lack of parents communication skills
Epsteins theory of parent involvement Connecting family, school and community through: parenting, communication, volunteering, learning at home, decision- making, collaboration with the community family-like schoolschool-like family
Sheridan and Kratochwills model of family-school partnership Partnership orientationTraditional orientation Clear commitment to work together in order to promote childs performance/achievement Emphasizing the school role in promoting learning Frequent communication that is bidirectional Communication initiated primarily by the school, infrequent and problem-centred Appreciating the cultural differences and recognizing the importance of its contribution to creating positive learning climate One size fits all – cultural difference is a challenge that needs to be overcome Appreciation of the significance of different perspectives Differences are seen as barriers Roles are clear, mutual, and supportiveSeparate roles distance participants Goals for students are mutually determined and shared Goals determined by school, sometimes shared with parents Plans are co-constructed, with agreed upon roles for all participants Educational plans devised and delivered by teachers Goals of family-school partnership: a. creating meaningful roles for family members b. promoting continuity c. enhancing competencies of all participants.
Sheridan and Kratochwills model of family-school partnership family- school partnership collaborative, interdependent, and balanced relationships shared responsibilities maintaining positive relationship as a priority flexible, responsive, and proactive services differences in perspectives seen as strengths commitment to cultural competence emphasis on outcomes and goal attainment
Parent-teacher roles/expectations KEY FINDINGS Parents develop role constructions; family resources should be treated as forms of capital: human, social, and cultural capital (Diamond & Gomez, 2004). Teachers perceive their roles as very distinct from parents: Teachers are expected to organize the learning and to inform the parents on the childs academic progress; parents are responsible for childs social and emotional development; parents prefer formal ways of communicating with teachers, (concrete and superficial relation with the teachers) (Poulou & Matsagouras, 2007). The attitudes parents have towards school are very important; teachers expect more from parents than parents are aware (Deslandes & Rousseau, 2007) Revised model of parental involvement process suggest that there is a need for differentiating between home- and school-based involvements (Green, Walker, Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 2007)
Who gets involved and why: predictors of parental involvement THE SUPPORTER Education: low/medium Characteristics: satisfied and involved, prepared to help with practical matters, willing to work, an excellent helping hand, pleasant partner, active, available on demand, has sufficient time Key words: helpful, nice, solid, friendly, creative, sympathetic, joint thinker, harmonious, supportive, enlightening, willing to serve, naïve, well-adjusted Suited for: lending a helping hand, parent committees Not suited for: school board without training THE ABSENTEE Education: low/medium Characteristics: does not consider him/herself suited to make a contribution, may only participate when asked explicitly, moderately dissatisfied, uninvolved. School has no priority, leaves choice of school up to chance, unapproachable Key words: loner, quitter, no contact with other parents, no friendship relations with the school, uncommunicative, wrestles with cultural gap Suited for: school support network, can serve as a bridge to other absentee parents or group of parents Not suited for: school board or parent committees without training (Smit, Driessen, Sluiter & Sleegers, 2007)
Who gets involved and why: predictors of parental involvement THE POLITICIAN Education: medium/high Characteristics: desire to help make decisions, exert influence, and be involved; satisfied as long as parent can participate in meetings; critical consumer; extroverted; pays attention to democratic quality of the choice of school Key words: critical, precise, optimistic, desire to inspire, persuasive Suited for: school board Not suited for: actual conduct of helping-hand services THE CAREER-MAKER Education: medium/high Characteristics: places responsibility for child raising, child care, and education on the school; one-stop-shopping approach; satisfied as long as school takes on all tasks; critical with regard to choice of school; school is for the parents Key words: aloof, businesslike, all take no give Suited for: school board, provided this fits his/her career prospects Not suited for: time consuming helping-hand services (Smit, Driessen, Sluiter & Sleegers, 2007)
Who gets involved and why: predictors of parental involvement THE TORMENTOR Education: high Characteristics: feel offended and misunderstood as a result of the schools attitude and own educational experiences; denounces errors on the part of the school as a critical consumer, is an unguided missile for the school team; is only satisfied when the school cringes and takes responsibility for suboptimal functioning Key words:: know-it-all, cold, insensitive, aggressive, conflictual, fighter, theatrical, impatient Suited for: school board Not suited for: helping-hand activities, parent committees THE SUPER PARENT Education: high Characteristics: feels responsible for child raising and education together with the school is willing to invest in the school relation; thinks critically along with the school; contributes good ideas; is prepared to utilize own networks; is satisfied when the school does its best for own child and other students Key words: loyal, ambitious, innovative, communicative, inspiring, walking encyclopedia, grows Suited for: thinking about problems, finding solutions, handling crises, acquisition of funds, school board (chair) Not suited for: supportive school network (Smit, Driessen, Sluiter & Sleegers, 2007)
Who gets involved and why: predictors of parental involvement RELEVANT FINDINGS Factors influencing parent involvement: parent efficacy regarding education, difficulty in making ends meet and neighbourhood disorders (Waanders, Mendez & Downer, 2007). Perceiving themselves as more efficient and seeing their role closer to teachers promotes parental involvement; parents involvement depends on parents perceptions of their beliefs and thoughts about themselves as parents – they need to believe they are able to make a difference (Georgiou, 2007). Theres a significant lack of sense of policy control and the interest in community-based activities on the local level, which may also explain why people living in similar life and societal conditions may have not be too interested in participating in the decision-making process and policy issues regarding schooling (Markward et al., 2006). Belonging to different groups and associations subject a person to a set of expectations which results in these expectations getting recursive, influencing the nature, patterns and intensity of parent involvement; there are 3 main sources of parental involvement: psychological motivators promoting involvement, perceived invitations to involvement, parents perceptions about life context elements that enable involvement (Hoover-Dempsey, 2007).
Who gets involved and why: exclusion patterns KEY FINDINGS Minority and immigrant families might be under the risk of becoming marginalized while being held responsible for getting involved; although the parental involvement issues have arisen on a large wave of discussions about the school democratization, it actually failed in recognizing the potentially harmful implications for vulnerable groups (Theodorou, 2007). Teachers from special schools see the parents within a deficit model; parents problems are seen as being the obstacles for both childrens progress and cooperation with the school; parents cooperating with the teachers are identified as caring, while - caring parents do not question the quality of teachers work (Boutskou, 2007). Agreement between school employees, students and their parents that the parental involvement and presence in schools needs to be more significant although it is not prioritized the same way; parents lack information and school assistance on how to support learning of their children; parent-teacher relations are burdened by dissatisfaction, frustrations and readiness to quit and disengage; the expectations of the other side are very high (Polovina, 2007).
Teachers practices of parental involvement KEY FINDINGS Three underlying factors characterizing the strategies teachers use for facilitating parent involvement at the classroom level: informing the parents on student performance and problems, providing the information and recommendations on increasing the involvement in academics, providing the connections with health and community institutions; the more often the teachers simply reach for parents, the more often parents from all socioeconomic groups tend to put some effort in engaging in the school life (Seitsinger, Felner, Brand & Burns, 2008). Strategies for boosting parent participation are formed around a few key points: development of a vision of parental participation, expansion of the visibility and approachability of the school team via the creation of contact moments, attention to the concerns of parents, connection to what parents find interesting, an eye for the quality of the communication between school and parents, stimulation of creativity and initiative, giving parents time to learn something from the school team (Smit, Driessen, Sluiter and Sleegers, 2007)
Parents trust RELEVANT FINDINGS Parents trust varies by factors that affect the opportunities for parents to make discernments about the trustworthiness of the school; differences in organizational characteristics of school lead to variation in parent-school trust; most of the inter-school variability can be explained by the parents sense of influence; systematic steps taken by the school in order to enhance the parent influence result in more trust (Adams, Forsyth & Mitchell, 2009) Partnerships need to be adapted to fit: specific conditions of family, demographics, student developmental needs, school structures, community resources (Benson, 1999).
Between cooperation and conflict: teacher and parent perceptions of parental involvement Parents - concerned about communitycentric pathways, teacher-parent communication, trust in schooling, aspirations for the school to become communityserving institution Teachers - concerned with parents involvement as defined by the teachers, teachers beliefs and attributions, teachers loneliness, scepticism and withdrawal in the process of school reform The origin of unsatisfactory teacher-parent communication is perceived to lie within the school who should initiate the collaboration being more responsive to parental and childrens needs (Lawson, 2003)