2When fabric first comes from the loom, it looks nothing like the finished fabric that you will see as a shirt, jacket, or towel. Many of the fabrics have no color—they are gray or off-white.How then are fabrics transformed into beautiful, colorful, and comfortable materials that you want to buy or wear? The answer is FINISHES!
3Finishing ProcessesFinishes are any special treatments that are applied to fabrics. They can improve a fabric’s appearance, texture, and performance.Every fiber and type of fabric has certain desirable and undesirable characteristics. Finishes can be added to reduce the undesirable characteristics or to improve the desirable ones.Fabric finishes may be permanent or temporary. Permanent finishes last throughout the life of the fabric. Temporary finishes may last through only one or two cleanings.
4Color and Design Finishes When fabric first comes from the loom, it is called gray goods. It must be cleaned to remove any oils, resins, gums, or soil that would prevent the finish from penetrating the fabric.Manufacturers then alter the appearance of gray goods by dyeing or printing the fabric.
5Dyeing TextilesDyes are compounds that penetrate and color fibers. They can be used to color the entire fabric or to create special designs on the fabric.There are five different methods of dyeing:Stock dyeingSolution dyeingYarn dyeingPiece dyeingProduct dyeingThe term colorfast means that the color in the fabric will not change. It will not fade from washing, from chlorine in a pool, or from exposure to sunlight.
6Printing TextilesFabrics can be printed in a variety of ways. Printing involves transferring color to the surface of a fabric to form a pattern or design.Four of the most common printing methods include: roller, screen, rotary screen, and heat transfer.The other method that you may be familiar with is tie dyeing.
7Types of Texture Finishes Most fabrics have some type of finish applied to improve surface texture and hand. These finishes may also help to improve the comfort and performance of the fabric.Types of texture finishes include:CalenderingGlazingNappingLusteringBeetlingDelusteringEmbossingCire’Moir’esizing
8Types of Performance Finishes Crease resistance and wrinkle resistance: these finishes help fabrics to resist wrinkling and to recover more rapidly from wrinkling caused by normal wear.Durable press: the fabric can be washed and dried by machine and will need little or no ironing.Shrinkage control: shrinkage should only be minimum, even after repeated launderings.Mercerization: this is a caustic soda treatment used on cotton, linen, and rayon. It gives the fiber added strength and luster.
9Types of Performance Finishes Continued.. Stain and spot resistance: these finishes help fabrics to repel water- and oil-based stains.Soil release: this makes it easier to remove soil and oily stains from durable press fabrics and manufactured fibers during laundering.Water repellant and waterproof: these finishes are designed to help keep the fabric and the wearer dry. Water-repellent fabrics have been treated to resist water, but eventually they will become wet. Waterproof fabrics have been coated or treated so that no water will penetrate.
10Types of Performance Finishes Continued.. Antistatic: this prevents fabrics from clinging.Flame-retardant: this helps to reduce flaming and burning in fabrics that have been exposed to a flame or high heat.This is required on children’s sleepwear and clothing.Antibacterial: this checks the growth of bacteria and perspiration odors.Mildew resistance: resists the growth of mildew or other molds.Moth resistance: repels moths and other fiber-eating insects.