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The Progressive Presidents

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Presentation on theme: "The Progressive Presidents"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Progressive Presidents

2 Problems facing Progressive Presidents
Immigration: TR's era Influx of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. Gentleman's Agreement dealing with Japanese immigration Today Influx of immigrants from Mexico Various proposals for amnesty for illegal immigrants.

3 Conservation: TR's era Resistance to presidential efforts to set aside western lands for National Forests, Reclamation Projects, Game & Bird Preserves, etc. Today Efforts to reopen western public lands to development.

4 Balancing Labor with Big Business and Consumerism: TR's era
Mediating Anthracite Coal Strike Addressing consumer concerns for safer food. Today Balancing American labor demands with corporate need to keep down labor costs by sending jobs overseas. Renewed concerns for food, especially meat, safety.

5 Anti-Trust Issues: TR's era 45 suits to break trusts that set prices/stop competition. Today Concerns and lawsuits, especially directed toward tele-communications and computer technology corporations to oppose domination of industry by a few companies.

6 Defining America's Role in the World: TR's era
Presidential use of mediation, international arbitration and courts in dealing with international problems. Today - America's relationship with the international community, especially with regard to the United Nations, the World Court, the international arbitration of problems, etc.

7 Theodore Roosevelt as President

8 Teddy Becomes President
1901 becomes president when William McKinley is assassinated Youngest person to serve as president (42 years old) 1st Progressive President Plan for Progressive Reforms called the Square Deal

9 TR vs. Big Business Known as “Trustbuster” because he breaks up Standard Oil He didn’t think all trusts were bad Sets up the Bureau of Corporations to Monitor Big Business Used Gentleman’s Agreements to give Business owners a chance to fix any wrongdoings

10 TR and Upton Sinclair Upton Sinclair was a muckraker
Book forced TR to get the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act Video: Great Books: The Jungle

11 Compare Upton Sinclair’s book The Jungle to Super Size Me

12 TR and Conservation Adds over 100 million acres to the national park system Protects the land from Industry Appoints Gifford Pinchot head of US Forest Service

13 Other TR Reforms Hepburn Act – Federal Government sets max Railroad Rates Newlands Reclamation Act – uses Federal Money to pay for irrigation and land development projects

14 William Taft As President

15 Taft Becomes President
Hand picked by Roosevelt to succeed him in 1908 Both were Republicans

16 Taft’s Progressive Reforms
Children’s Bureau – Set up to monitor Child Labor Mann-Elkins Act – regulate telephones and telegraphs Bigger Trustbuster than T. Roosevelt

17 Taft, Not Progressive Enough?
Ballinger Pinchot Controversy Richard Ballenger = Taft’s Secretary of the Interior Planned to sell natural forests Ratted out in Press by Gifford Pinchot (Roosevelt’s head of Forest Service) Taft fires Pinchot – TR furious

18 Breaks up US Steel Roosevelt used a Gentlemen’s agreement to allow US Steel to operate Standard Oil Co. v US – court determines what is a reasonable trust – Standard Oil broken up

19 Roosevelt and Taft Split
Taft receives the Republican Nomination for President in 1912 Roosevelt forms his own party – The Progressive (Bull Moose) Party- runs for president

20 Campaign Buttons from 1912 election
Republican Party Democratic Party Progressive Party

21 Republican Party Platform
High import tariffs. Put limitations on female and child labor. Workman’s Compensation Laws. Against initiative, referendum, and recall. Against “bad” trusts. Creation of a Federal Trade Commission. Stay on the gold standard. Conservation of natural resources because they are finite.

22 Progressive Party Platform
Women’s suffrage. Graduated income tax. Inheritance tax for the rich. Lower tariffs. Limits on campaign spending. Currency reform. Minimum wage laws. Social insurance. Abolition of child labor. Workmen’s compensation. N e w N a t i o n a l i s m

23 Democratic Party Platform
Government control of the monopolies  trusts in general were bad  eliminate them!! Tariff reduction. One-term President. Direct election of Senators. Create a Department of Labor. Strengthen the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Did NOT support women’s suffrage. Opposed to a central bank. Ne w F r e e d o m

24 The Socialist Party & Eugene V. Debs
The issue is Socialism versus Capitalism. I am for Socialism because I am for humanity.

25 Growth of the Socialist Vote
Year Socialist Party Socialist Labor Party Total 1888 2,068 1890 13,704 1892 21,512 1894 30,020 1896 36,275 36,274 1898 82,204 1900 96,931 33,405 130,336 1902 223,494 53,763 277,257 1904 408,230 33,546 441,776 1906 331,043 20,265 351,308 1908 424,488 14,021 438,509 1910 607,674 34,115 641,789 1912 901,873

26 Socialist Party Platform
Government ownership of railroads and utilities. Guaranteed income tax. No tariffs. 8-hour work day. Better housing. Government inspection of factories. Women’s suffrage.

27 Up Against the Hurdles

28 Conservation Issue: The Ballinger- Pinchot Controversy

29 The Unanswerable Argument for Suffrage

30 Taft Abandons Support for Women’s Suffrage
Never Again! Taft Abandons Support for Women’s Suffrage

31 Lynching & the Race Issue

32 An Actual 1912 Ballot

33 Political Parties during the Progressive Era
Cut out the circles and paste them on your paper Cut out the descriptions of political parties and try to match them up to the political party names Glue descriptions onto paper Keep this in your notebook to help explain political parties

34 Election Results By 1912, 100,000 fewer people had voted for Wilson than had voted for Bryan in 1908. The 1912 election marked the apogee of the Socialist movement in America.

35 GOP Divided by Bull Moose Equals Democratic Victory!

36 Taft and Roosevelt split votes
Democrat Woodrow Wilson is elected

37 Woodrow Wilson As President

38 Wilson as a Progressive
Called his plan for progressive reforms: New Freedom Only Progressive President who was a Democrat

39 Wilson Progressive Reforms
Federal Reserve Act Creates Federal Reserve System Uses interest rates to regulate money supply Federal Trade Commission Can issue cease and desist orders on companies that hurt fair competition Clayton Anti-Trust Act Gave unions the right to exist Underwood Tariff Included provision for a federal income tax

40 Legacy of Progressivism
1st time the Federal Government passed laws that protected workers and regulated big business Role of Federal government expanded

41 Limits of Progressivism
Does not address problems facing African Americans Sharecropping Jim Crow Poll Taxes, Literacy tests, or Grandfather Clause African Americans from NAACP to help themselves achieve goals

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