3 The Indian National Flag Saffron – courage, sacrifice, and renunciationWhite – purity and truthGreen – faith and fertilityCourageFlag: 24 spokes symbokizes life in movement and death in stagnationSaffron: Courage, sacrifice and renunciationWhite: Purity and truthGreen: faith and fertilityIn the centre of the white band is a wheel in navy blue colour. This centre symbol or the 'CHAKRA', is a Buddhist symbol dating back to 3rd century BC.The wheel with 24 spokes symbolizes life in movement and death in stagnation
7 Administrative divisions of India 28 states 7 territories
8 Facts… Official Name: Bharat (Hindi), Republic of India (English) Capital: New DelhiPopulation: 1, 027, 015, 247 (2001 Census)Languages: India has two National languages, English and Hindi. The Indian Constitution also officially recognizes 22 regional languages.Literacy: 65.38%President: Pratibha PatilPrime Minister: Dr. Manmohan Singh
9 The North Block, in New Delhi, houses key government offices
10 Queen Victoria (1819 – 1901) became Empress of India in 1876 The Jewel in the CrownThe British started trading with India in the sixteenth century and ruled the country for nearly 400 years.They set up the East India Company to do business for them.The different states of India were ruled by Indian emperors, who were Muslims.The British government gradually gained control over most of India.The British made profit from their trading.Queen Victoria (1819 – 1901) became Empress of India in 1876
11 The Rebellion of 1857A rebellion against the British began at an army base near Delhi.The British ordered Indian soldiers to handle rifle cartridges which were covered in pork and beef fat.This was unthinkable for both Muslims and Hindus.For Muslims, pork is unclean and the cow is a holy animal for Hindus.
12 The Rebellion ofThere were many revolts around the country, but they were not very organizedBoth sides were barbaric and cruelAfter 14 months of fighting, the British regained control, but the anti-British feeling in India grew. The British responded by becoming even stricter.
13 The RajAfter the Rebellion, the British government got rid of the East India Company and took control of the countryCoat of Arms
14 The RajThe British tried to change from being cruel masters to ones bringing progressThe British built railways, roads, and irrigation systemsThe British helped agriculture and industry growThe English language was used in administration and in educationWhen universities were started, the British educational system was used as a modelCoat of Arms
15 IndependenceIndian demands for independence grew stronger after World War IIThe British agreed to grant India independence in 1947The country was divided into two parts, Pakistan for the Muslims and India for Hindus and SikhsMuslims and Hindus started fighting and killing each other. Over 17 million left their homes and moved to the land which was meant for their religious group.
16 Major ReligionsHinduismBuddhismIslamChristianitySikhismJainism
17 HinduismHinduism originated over 3000 years ago. Hinduism claims to have many founders, teachers and prophets who claim first hand experience of God.When Hindus promote the idea of spirituality as a principle rather than a personality, they call this Brahman.
18 Hinduism Hinduism is known for its millions of gods Lakshmi is the consort of the god Vishnu. She is one of the most popular goddesses of Hindu mythology and is known as the goddess of wealth and purity.
19 Mutis or deities and their worship (puja) play a crucial role in Hinduism. Shown here is the popular figure of Ganesha.
20 The Akshardan Temple is a Hindu temple in New Delhi
21 The River Ganges The river Ganges is the holiest river for Hindus. Once every 12 years, up to 10 million people share in ritual bathing at the Kumbh Mela festival at Allahabad where the waters of the Ganges and Jumna combine.Hindus from all walks of life gather there for ritual bathing, believing that their sins will be washed away.The River GangesA Hindu who dies at Varanasi and has their ashes scattered on the Ganges is said to have experienced the best death possible.
22 The Ganga is considered the holiest of the three sacred rivers by Hindus
23 The Sacred CowIn Hinduism, the cow is a symbol of wealth, strength, abundance, selfless giving and a full Earthly life
31 Mahatma Gandhi – a Great Leader is central to the story of Indian independenceLargely because of Gandhi, the British had to leave India, where they had been for more than 300 years
32 Mahatma Gandhi... Did not believe in violence Showed his people how to protest peacefullyNearly died in hunger strikesWas imprisoned many times
33 Mahatma Gandhi Millions of people followed him The Hindus and the Muslims had never been unitedOnly Gandhi was able to bring them together in the struggle against the BritishGandhi was murdered shortly after India became independent in 1947Gandhi’s ideas lived on and especially influenced people like Martin Luther King
34 Mother Theresa (1910 – 1997)Was a Catholic nun of Albanian descent who worked in the slums of CalcuttaTook care of people dying of sickness and hungerOpened a home for them in an old Hindu temple. This was the first of many homes she started
39 BOLLYWOODBollywood is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India.Bollywood is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema.Bollywood is only a part of the Indian film industry.Bollywood is one of the largest film producers in the world, producing more than 1,000 films a year.Unlike Hollywood, Bollywood does not exist as a real physical place.
40 The Indian ElephantThe Asian elephant is one of the largest land mammals on Earth.The trunk of the Asian elephant has two finger-like structures at its tip that allow the animal to perform both delicate and powerful movements.Elephants have long, coarse hairs sparsely covering their body.Their skin is brown to dark grey.They have been very important to Asian culture for thousands of years.They have been domesticated and are used for transportation and to move heavy objects.
41 The Bengal TigerSince the era of gods and goddesses, the Tiger has been of great importance in India.It has been mentioned in every myth, epic and literature.The only place where Royal Bengal Tiger is found is the land of natural heritage, India.It also lives in Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Bhutan and in Burma.The Bengal Tiger is a powerful hunter with sharp teeth, strong jaws, and an agile body.The Bengal Tiger is the largest member of the cat family.It is also the largest land-living mammal whose diet consists entirely of meat.Its length can measure up to 10 feet and has a weight ranging from 180 to 260 kilos.
42 Indian PeacockThe Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), is the national bird of India.It is symbolic of qualities like beauty, grace, pride and mysticism.The Peacock is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck.The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers it is able to expand its tail erect like fan as ostentatious display.The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male, and lacks the train.The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a beautiful sight.