Presentation on theme: "Cells. All living things are made up of cells Cells are the building blocks of life Organization Organ Systems Organs Tissues Cells Tissues are made of."— Presentation transcript:
All living things are made up of cells Cells are the building blocks of life Organization Organ Systems Organs Tissues Cells Tissues are made of Cells
What are Cells? Cells have organs called Organelles Cell Membrane Cytoplasm
Cell Parts found in ALL cells Cell membrane – Cell boundary protecting the inside of the cell from the outside – protective covering that encloses the entire cell – Any material coming in or out must pass through the cell membrane Cytoplasm – Gelatin like material contained inside the cell membrane – Most of the work of the cell is carried out in cytoplasm
Organelles Organelles do all the work cells need to do such as: Make Protein Turn food into Energy Get rid of waste All organelles have a function.
Like your body's organs have functions, so do the organelles with cells. Kidneys & Intestines Lysosomes & Peroxysomes
Do Cells Have A Brain? What does the Brain do?
Cells have genetic material like DNA & RNA These genes act like a computer that control all of an organisms functions
Eukaryotic Cells Animal and plants, including people are made of eukaryotic cells. This means that the genetic material is surrounded by a membrane Together, the genetic material and the membrane make up an organelle called a Nucleus Genetic Material Membrane Nucleus
Eukaryotic cell Genetic material located in nucleus – Nucleus enclosed by its own membrane Organelles – Any cell part enclosed by a membrane Most multi-cellular organisms are Euraryotic
Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Cells do not have a nucleus. The genetic material floats around in the cytoplasm. Most Prokaryotes are single bacteria Flagella are how prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells move. However, they are differences between the two. Flagella
Prokaryotic Cell No separate compartment for genetic material – Genetic material is in cytoplasm No organelles Most unicellular organisms are Prokaryotic
Do all cells look the same? We learned earlier that specific organs are designed to do a specific job. Therefore, they are made of specific types of cells and are shape in a specific way. Hmmm?
In any organism, different cells do different jobs. Some bone cells are star shaped Muscle cells have to Be able to stretch Nerve cells can be long so they can carry information around the body. This bacteria has small hair-like flagella to help it move
Red blood cells are shaped like tiny bowls Cell Wall Plant cells have a rigid cell wall that maintains the shape
Organelles Ribosomes: – tiny structures located in the cytoplasm and ER; use information to build proteins Chloroplast: – plant cell organelle that gets energy from sunlight to make sugar Mitochondria: – use oxygen to get energy from processing food; all eukaryotic cells Endoplasmic reticulum – (ER): system of twisting and winding membranes; manufactures parts of cell membrane
Vesicles: – formed from ER; transport processed materials to the Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus: – folded membranes that look like a stack of pancakes; finishes processing materials Vacuoles: – enclosed by a membrane; sac holding water in plant cells Lysosomes: – vesicles containing chemicals that break down materials taken into the animal cell Organelles