Presentation on theme: "Middle School Literacy:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Middle School Literacy: Leading The WayMartha LambAugust 2008
2 Objectives:To broaden the concept of literacy as a critical 21st Century skill setTo identify the characteristics of effective reading instructionTo study strategies for literacy leadershipTo brainstorm a variety of options for staff developmentWe will review current researchI will model reading & response strategiesBegin by setting up ideabooks: label the front, table of contents, number the pages, date & label at top corner of each page, start new pages on right side, reserving the left for additional notes, thoughts, annotations
3 Activity: Make A DateMake dates for Friday night, Saturday afternoon, & Saturday night. Can’t date same person twice. If you don’t get a date, you will meet with me. Record your dates in your notebook.
4 Literacy in the 21st Century Social behaviors define literacy (matching activity)“Powering Down” for school (read-aloud & silent reading)Reflection (Ideabook)Cut, match & check eras of literacy; glue into ideabooksRead aloud p. 8-9 Adolescent Literacy, chap 1 by Kylene Beers, then have participants read bottom of p silently) Do a double-entry dialogue journal entry in ideabook. In left column, answer the question: What concerns do you have that were raised by this text? Pass ideabooks to the right, read & react in the right column to the ideabook you receive. Return ideabooks to owners.
5 National Reading Panel Report AlphabeticsFluencyComprehensionTeacher Education & Reading InstructionComputer Technology & Reading InstructionRefer to NRP report: table of contents to see the organization. Also show them the full report book.Tell them we will cover the first 3 bullets. See the book for the last two.Ask them to use highlighters to highlight areas that pertain specifically to middle school.
7 National Reading Panel Report Alphabetics“. . . systematic phonics instruction produces significant benefits for students in kindergarten through 6th grade and for children having difficulty learning to read.” (p. 9)“Systematic synthetic phonics instruction had a positive and significant effect on disabled readers’ reading skills.” (p. 9)“. . . while phonics skills are necessary in order to learn to read, they are not sufficient in their own right.” (p. 11)Implication: Phonics instruction for non-handicapped middle school students consists primarily of the study of syllabication & word parts
9 National Reading Panel Report Fluency: Guided Oral Reading & Independent Silent Reading“guided repeated oral reading procedures had a significant and positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of grade levels.” (p. 12)Implication: Guided oral reading during teacher-student reading conferences, paired reading, and “Reader’s Theater” can help increase reading comprehension by increasing fluency.
10 National Reading Panel Report Fluency (continued)“Literally hundreds of correlational studies find that the best readers read the most and that poor readers read the least. These correlational studies suggest that the more that children read, the better their fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. However, these findings are correlational in nature, and correlation does not imply causation.” (p. 12)“In sum, methodologically rigorous research designed to assess the specific influences that independent silent reading practices have on reading fluency and other reading skills and the motivation to read has not yet been conducted.” (p. 13)
11 National Reading Panel Report AlphabeticsFluencyComprehension: Vocabulary Instruction, Text Comprehension Instruction, and Teacher Prep and Comprehension Strategies InstructionTeacher Education & Reading InstructionComputer Technology & Reading Instruction
12 National Reading Panel Report Comprehension: Vocabulary Instruction“. . . the larger the reader’s vocabulary, the easier it is to make sense of the text.” (p. 13)“. . . vocabulary instruction does lead to gains in comprehension, but methods must be appropriate to the age and ability of the reader ” (p. 14)“. . . learning words before reading a text also is helpful repeated exposure, including having the student encounter words in various contexts, appear(s) to enhance vocabulary development.” (p. 14)
13 National Reading Panel Report Comprehension: Vocabulary Instruction (continued)“. . . vocabulary should be taught both directly and indirectly. Repetition and multiple exposures to vocabulary items are important Dependence on a single vocabulary instruction method will not result in optimal learning.” (p. 14)Implications:A variety of strategies should be used to teach vocabularyIntegration of vocabulary instruction across disciplines has value by providing multiple exposures (team planning)Essential vocabulary should be taught in all content areas prior to the reading of difficult texts.
14 National Reading Panel Report Comprehension: Text Comprehension Instruction“. . . readers derive meaning from text when they engage in intentional, problem solving thinking processes.” (p. 14)“The rationale for the explicit teaching of comprehension skills is that comprehension can be improved by teaching students to use specific cognitive strategies or to reason strategically when they encounter barriers to understanding what they are reading. . . Explicit or formal instruction in the application of comprehension strategies has been shown to be highly effective in enhancing understanding. The teacher generally demonstrates such strategies for students until the students are able to carry them out independently.” (p. 15)Have participants use highlighters to mark text that they feel is important.
15 National Reading Panel Report Comprehension: Text Comprehension Instruction (continued)“. . . the Panel identified 16 categories of text comprehension instruction of which 7 appear to have a solid scientific basis for concluding that these types of instruction improve comprehension in non-impaired readers. Some of these types of instruction are helpful when used alone, but many are more effective when used as part of a multiple-strategy method.” (p. 15)Have participants use highlighters to mark text that they feel is important.
16 National Reading Panel Report Comprehension: Text Comprehension Instruction (continued)The types of instruction are:Comprehension monitoringCooperative learningUse of graphic and semantic organizers (including story maps)Question answeringQuestion generationStory structureSummarizationHave participants use highlighters to mark text that they feel is important.
17 National Reading Panel Report Comprehension: Text Comprehension Instruction (continued)“. . . teaching a combination of reading comprehension techniques is the most effective. When students use them appropriately, they assist in recall, question answering, question generation, and summarization of texts. When used in combination, these techniques can improve results in standardized comprehension tests.“The literature also suggests that teaching comprehension in the context of specific academic areas – for example, social studies—can be effective. If this is true of other subject areas, then it might be efficient to teach comprehension as a skill in content areas.” (p. 15)Have participants use highlighters to mark text that they feel is important.
18 National Reading Panel Report Comprehension: (Teacher Preparation and Comprehension Strategies Instruction)“Teachers not only must have a firm grasp of the content presented in text, but also must have substantial knowledge of the strategies themselves, of which strategies are most effective for different students and types of content and of how best to teach and model strategy use.” (p. 16)Implication: Professional development is an essential part of any plan for improving reading comprehension.Have participants use highlighters to mark text that I have found to be important. (this is modeling a strategy)
19 Friday Night Date: On your date, talk about your two biggest concerns about literacy instruction in your school or in our school system.After date, do a journal entry labeled “2 Big Concerns” in which you summarize your conversation with your date.
20 Essential Elements of Instruction Article: Everything Secondary Administrators Need to Know, but Are Afraid to Ask: Understanding Pragmatic Adolescent Literacy Planning by Gwynne Ellen Ash, Texas State University, Dec. 2004Think-aloud: Determining ImportancePractice & Pair-ShareGroup ShareWhere/When does literacy instruction occur?(chart)Model a think-aloud in which I show my thinking on what information is most important in this section. (model for p. 3 & 4 smart boards. Have them to pp. 5-9 individually. share; I place marks on copy on screen using schoolpad from their input.Refer to chart in notebooks on who is responsible for each type of instruction;segue to next section elaborating on various parts of literacy instruction.Hare ChoiceLiteracy quotes on content literacy for adolescents: point out quote near bottom by Richard Vacca and the last one dealing with content teachers teaching students how to read & write in their areas.
21 Guided ReadingGuided reading must use texts at students’ instructional reading level.Tools:Lexiles:More accessible/less accessible selections in our current literature textSmall group instruction using texts at various levelsContent classes: non-fiction, historical novels, primary sources, etc.Language Arts classes: novels, consumer textsLexiles: -go over lexile reader & lexile text measure; show how to look up titles/lexile levels online. . . AR books lexiles are given; EOG gives student reader lexiles: show student score report with lexile level refer to copy of lexile info in notebooks; show book-finder utility on lexile website**Show EOG report – where lexiles are given based on test performance**Share Vietnam books as examples of leveled texts in the content areas**Discuss broadening our definition of “texts” – show Jackdaws catalog
22 Comprehension Strategies Basic strategies include:Activating prior knowledgeDetermining importance of informationPredictingMaking connections: text to self, text to world, & text to textVisualizingSummarizingClarifying (by looking back in the passage, using context clues, etc.)Asking questionsAre typically categorized into:Before reading strategiesDuring reading strategiesAfter reading strategiesActivity: participants create a mnemonic device to help remember the comprehension strategies. May be an acronym or a sentence using the first word of each. (May change the order of the strategies) Write it in notebooks
23 Comprehension Strategies Must be taught to the level of automaticity* to be useful.Declarative Knowledge: student can describe a strategyProcedural Knowledge: student can use a strategy on demand*Conditional Knowledge: student can select and apply a strategyInstruction in comprehension strategies utilizes the gradual release of responsibility:I do (teacher models)We do (guided or scaffolded practice)You do (independent practice)Teacher designs instruction to push for transfer of the strategies to use during independent reading
24 Peer Discussion of Texts Paired readingSmall group discussions after the whole group has read the same textsLiterature Circles: each small group reads a different text & conducts their own discussion with structure provided by the teacherWritten discussion can take place via the use of blogs and/or wikis
25 Vocabulary/Word Study Simulation Activity: “The Montebation of Traxalene”Summary of research on vocabulary instruction: (SIMS)Teachers must be selective in choosing words to teach (no more than five words in one lesson)Words should be taught in context (not in isolated word lists)Students should be provided multiple opportunities for exposure to vocabulary in a variety of contextsMeaning is retained more efficiently if students are led to synthesize the meaning by doing the following: write a meaningful definition in their own words, create a symbol or picture for the word, and select a synonym and antonymRead “The Montebation of Traxalene” and answer questions. Point out how they can answer questions and have no knowledge of the article’s content. Define “montebation” and ask them to use context clues to figure out the meaning. Point out how that one key word led to comprehension of the entire passage.Use SIMS to remember these 4 important points about vocabulary instruction
26 Vocabulary/Word Study Strategies for teaching vocabulary that you want to see in your classrooms:Appropriately used word wallsWord/symbol associations i.e., PICTURESWord mapsRich discussion of words, especially those with multiple meaningsInstruction in morphology (word parts) & etymologyWhat you should not see:Students with word lists, copying definitions from a dictionary or glossary to memorizeWeekly assignments in vocabulary workbooksShow example of word maps, vocabulary circles, etc.
27 Oral Reading No more “round-robin” reading. It provides a poor model of oral readingIt is often slow and tediousStudents frequently pay attention only to the section they are going to readIn the alternative . . .Short read-alouds by the teacher on a regular basisPaired-partner readingWhisper-reading to teacher during one-on-one conference (can be held during whole group silent readingReader’s Theater
28 Oral ReadingWhat about those students who can’t read our textbooks? How can they get the content if we don’t read it all aloud?Strategies to scaffold the reading of texts that teachers can utilizeIf textbooks are always read aloud, how can our students ever get practice reading them?
29 Self-Selected Reading/choice/inquiry Silent Sustained Reading: Use & Misuse(discussion)Accountable Independent Reading: How can we keep students accountable?Annotated reading logsStructured discussionsCreation of a product after reading (student choice)discuss use & misuse of silent sustained reading. Suggest alternative ways to use AR or OTHER system of accountability for silent reading. Suggest vertical articulation in feeder groups of use of AR.
30 Saturday Afternoon Date: Meet your date and await further instructions . . . Give door prizes for this:You & your date have 30 seconds torecall the two ways we discussed that teachers can use to help students increase fluency in reading (guided oral reading & reader’s theater)Name four important points made by research in vocabulary instructionRecall the seven comprehension strategies
31 The Achievement Gap African-American Males English Language Learners BoysAfrican Americans: Use Predict-o-gram board to preface the reading of introduction, Tatum book. Make board with words on sticky notes; read article; revisit board to re-categorize wordsreview article on p of Adolescent Literacy to point out the need for “textual lineages”Show book, Going With the Flow
32 Literacy Leadership What is my role? How do I get started? What steps can be taken to ensure success?Pre-reading/vocabulary strategy: Possible Sentences- use before reading What Is My Role In Supporting Pragmatic p. 10.Examine book, Literacy Leadership by Taylor & Collins to identify steps for leading a literacy initiative. Emphasize that these steps are entirely optional and that each principal may design a plan for literacy as he/she sees fit.In notebook, turn to a fresh page and make a list of steps that you think you might want to take as you undertake a literacy plan; then, place numbers by each one to indicate their priority order
33 Literacy Leadership What is my role? The principal has the most critical role in leading a school’s literacy program. Without vision and direction from the top, any initiatives likely will be carried out in a voluntary & piecemeal fashion.How do I get started?What steps can be taken to ensure success?Pre-reading/vocabulary strategy: Possible Sentences- use before reading What Is My Role In Supporting Pragmatic p. 10.Examine book, Literacy Leadership by Taylor & Collins to identify steps for leading a literacy initiative. Emphasize that these steps are entirely optional and that each principal may design a plan for literacy as he/she sees fit.
34 Literacy Leadership What is my role? How do I get started? Reflect upon your beliefs about literacyConsider your stakeholders’ commitmentGather & analyze dataAlign curriculum, instruction, & assessmentWhat steps can be taken to ensure success?
35 Literacy Leadership What is my role? How do I get started? What steps can be taken to ensure success?Involve your stakeholders in the process of planningDevise a systematic program of professional development for your staffPlan the ways in which you & your staff will evaluate their progressIn notebook, turn to a fresh page and make a list of steps that you think you might want to take as you undertake a literacy plan; then, place numbers by each one to indicate their priority order
36 Saturday Night DateDescribe to your date what you think at this point will be your first step for your literacy plan and why
37 Professional Development Analysis of past professional developmentAlternatives/differentiation of professional developmentBook studiesAttendance at conferences or presentations by reading expertsNW RESA staff development offeringsSchool-based workshops???Use Chapter 5, Literacy LeadershipPossible book studies:Beers’ When Kids Can’t Read and Real Reading, Real Writing
38 Objectives:To broaden the concept of literacy as a critical 21st Century skill setTo identify the characteristics of effective reading instructionTo study strategies for literacy leadershipTo brainstorm a variety of options for staff developmentReview objectives: to what extent have they been met?What needs are next? (use ideabooks)