Presentation on theme: "K-2 Comprehension Connection Mia Johnson and Lora Drum CCS Curriculum Specialist."— Presentation transcript:
K-2 Comprehension Connection Mia Johnson and Lora Drum CCS Curriculum Specialist
The key word in each of the definitions is meaning. If readers can read words, but are not able to construct meaning, then are they really reading? Turn and talk to a partner, giving them your definition of comprehension Comprehension is intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between text and reader (Harris and Hodges, 1995). Comprehension is a process in which readers construct meaning by interacting with text through the combination of prior knowledge and previous experience, information in the text, and the stance the reader takes in relationship to the text (Pardo, 2004).
Take 40 sec. and Jot Thoughts about what you think this looks like in a K-2 classroom.
True/False Statement True/False Teaching comprehension means teaching a series of skills. If children are reading at an instructional reading level, comprehension will take care of itself. Comprehension skills and strategies are not the same. If children successfully learn how to decode, then comprehension will take care of itself.
Comprehension can be improved by teaching students to use specific cognitive strategies or to reason strategically when they encounter barriers to understanding what they are reading. Readers acquire these strategies informally to some extent, but explicit or formal instruction in the application of comprehension strategies has been shown to be highly effective in enhancing understanding. The teacher generally demonstrates such strategies for students until the students are able to carry them out independently. (National Reading Panel, 2000)
Explicit comprehension instruction in K-2 is not only possible, but wise and beneficial rather than detrimental to overall reading instruction. To delay this sort of powerful instruction until children have reached the intermediate grades is to deny them the very experiences that help them develop the most important of reading dispositions – the expectation that they should and can understand each and every text they read. (p 257) Diane Snowball
Text structure elements, visualizing, summarizing, predicting based on prior knowledge, questioning, clarifying and Fluent word recognition. (Duke and Pearson 2002)
During this age range, children become able to think multi- dimensionally, a requirement of comprehension, and to reason with others in group settings. The University of Chicago 1996
What the panel ( The National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance research panel ) refers to as strategies are not the same as comprehension skills typically listed in core reading programs, nor are they teaching activities. p. 11
A strategy is a thinking process that is used consciously and intentionally to achieve a goal A strategy is an intentional mental action during reading that improves reading comprehension. A strategy is a deliberate effort by a reader to better understand or remember what is being read.
Effective strategy instruction involves a gradual release of responsibility from the teacher to the learner (Duke & Pearson, 2002) so that over time your students gradually take over the responsibility for decision making and putting the strategies into practice.
Explicit Description TTTT Teacher Modeling STTT Collaborative Use SSTT Guided Practice SSST Independent Use SSSS
Students pay attention to whether they understand what they are reading and when they do not, they reread or use strategies that will help them understand what they have read.
Students think about what they already know and use that knowledge in conjunction with other clues to construct meaning as they read.
Text Samples Mini lesson: meet with a partner, one read, one sketch, big book with informational text/narrative. Students develop a mental image of what is described in the text.
Ex. Cape Hatteras is in North Carolina. North Carolina is east of the Mississippi. Cape Hatteras is east of the Mississippi. All Dogs are male or female. Loras dog had 4 puppies. She named the boys Bill and Bob. The other two dogs must be girls. Students generate information that is important to constructing meaning but that is missing from, or not explicitly stated in, the text.
1. Work with your table group. 2. Open your envelope and take out the symbols. 3. Using the three symbols, make an inference as to what your story might be about. 4. Record your inference on the index card.
Students make personal connections with the text by using their schema. There are three main type of connections we make while reading: text to self, text to text, and text to world. Text to Text Connection: Chrysanthemum and Owen by Kevin Henkes
Students distinguish the difference between fiction and nonfiction, narrative and expository to question and synthesize important and unimportant information.
Students develop and attempt to answer questions about the important ideas in the text while reading, using words such as where or why to develop their own questions. Questioning the Text By Stephanie Harvey We work on questioning for several weeks in many ways: marking texts with stick-on notes; sorting them according to importance; bringing our questions to book clubs for discussion; talking about questions unanswered by the author; and recording questions on charts.
The blue whale is as long as a basketball court. Its eyes are as big as softballs. Its tongue weighs as much as an elephant. It is the biggest animal that has ever lived on earth-bigger than any dinosaur. Book:Davies, Nicola. Big Blue Whale. Illustrated by Nick Maland. Candlewick, pages
How long is a blue whale? Are blue whales bigger than dinosaurs? Was there ever a dinosaur as long as a basketball court? I wonder why the author wrote about a basket - ball court?
Who, What, Where, When, Why, and How? Students briefly describe, orally or in writing, the main points of what they read.
That is all you need!
Find the match to your puzzle and put them together. You and your new partner…. Students generate new information which makes the reader re-evaluate their schema to form new schema.
Summarizing is part of synthesis. You cant synthesize if you dont know how to summarize. Summarizing is the act of briefly presenting the main point. When teaching summary, teachers should encourage readers to retell information by including important ideas but not telling too much. Stephanie Harvey
The effectiveness of instruction in comprehension strategies depends critically on how they are taught, supported, and practiced Common instructional mistakes Strategies taught as ends in themselves -- memorized Too much focus on the strategies themselves, and not enough on constructing the meaning of text. Can go astray if students spend too much time thinking about how they should process the text rather than thinking about the text itself. Too much time on the explicit instruction part and not enough time on the collaborative, scaffolded, application/ discussion part will result in the loss of focus: comprehension!
Effective, long-term instruction should involve teaching students to use multiple strategies as needed to improve their comprehension of text.
Effective instruction requires many opportunities for students to collaborate and discuss text using strategies to structure discussion.
The focus of strategy instruction should always be on constructing the meaning of the text
Effective strategy instruction always involves explicit description and modeling of strategies by the teacher. (Gradual Release Responsibility)
Effective strategy instruction always involves extended discussions of text in which the teacher scaffolds student strategy use. (Guided Reading Groups)
The purpose of strategy instruction is to stimulate students thinking about the meaning of text (by providing guided opportunities for them to actually think about, and interpret text)– ultimately, their attention needs to be on the text and not on the strategies.
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