Presentation on theme: "Unit F: Muscular System"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit F: Muscular System Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the muscles.Specific Objectives:Explain the structure of the muscles. Analyze the function of the muscular system.Discuss characteristics and treatment of common muscle disorders.
2 Bell……List the functions of the muscular system, chapter starts on page 123(do not eat your candy)
3 Describe the structure of the muscles “the power system” A.Muscles1.Nearly half our weight comes from muscle tissue2.There are 650 different muscles in the human body3.Muscles give shape and form4.Muscles produce body heat
4 THREE MAIN FUNCTIONS Responsible for all body movement. Responsible for body form and shape (posture)Responsible for body heat and maintaining body temperature.
5 Bell What are the 3 types of muscles? What is the difference in voluntary and involuntary muscles?
7 Types of muscle tissue Skeletal Skeletal MuscleAttached to boneStriated (striped) appearanceVOLUNTARYMultinucleated muscle cell bundles (muscle cells = muscle fibers)SARCOLEMMA = cell membraneContract quickly, fatigue easily, can’t maintain contraction for long period of time
8 Types of muscle tissue. Smooth Smooth MuscleVisceral (organ) muscleFound in walls of digestive system, uterus and blood vesselsCells small and spindle-shapedINVOLUNTARYControlled by autonomic nervous systemAct slowly, do not tire easily, can remain contracted for long time
10 Structures of the muscular system Types of MuscleSphincter musclesAlso called dilator musclesSpecial, circular musclesLocated in thedigestive systemurinary system1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system10
11 Structures of the muscular system Types of muscleSkeletalSmoothCardiacSphincter1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system11
12 Structures of the muscular system Types of Connective tissueTendonsFascia1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system12
13 Structures of the muscular system Connective tissueTendonsdense bands that connect skeletal muscle to the bone1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system13
14 Structures of the muscular system Connective tissueFasciaFibrous connective tissue sheets that wrap around muscle bundles1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system14
15 CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCLES CONTRACTIBILITY – the ability of a muscle to reduce the distance between the parts of its contents or the space it surrounds.EXCITEABILITY (IRRITABILITY) – the ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing impulses.EXTENSIBILITY – the ability to be stretched.ELASTICITY – ability of muscle to return to its original length when relaxing.
16 Bell… Create a quiz For penia-uria (is that right?) Include all Be creativeThe most creative and with a KEY..WINS
17 MOVEMENT Muscles move bones by pulling on them. As a muscle contracts, it pulls the insertion bone closer to the origin bone. Movement occurs at the joint between the origin and the insertion.Rule: A muscle’s insertion bone moves toward its origin bone.Groups of muscles usually contract toproduce a single movement.MOTOR UNIT – a motor neuron plus all the muscle fibers it stimulates.NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION – the junction between the motor neuron’s fiber which transmits the impulse – and the muscle cell membrane.ACETYLCHOLINE – chemical neurotransmitter, diffuses across the synaptic cleft (carries impulse across synaptic cleft)/ap/muscletissue/contraction/actionpotentials/animation.htmlhttp://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/muscletissue/contraction/actionpotentials/animation.html
18 Characteristics of Muscles ContractibilityExcitabilityExtensibilityElasticity1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system18
19 Characteristics of Muscles Contractibility1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system19
20 Characteristics of Muscles ContractibilityMyoneural stimulation+contraction of muscle proteins=movement and heat1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system20
21 Characteristics of Muscles ContractibilityNeurotransmitter at site of muscle stimulus.The sodium-potassium pump of the membrane of a muscle cell.The purpose of this slide is to illustrate the complexity of the process of movement.1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system21
22 Characteristics of Muscles Excitability1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system22
23 Characteristics of Muscles Extensibility1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system23
24 Characteristics of Muscles Elasticity1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system24
25 Characteristics of Muscles Elasticity1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system25
26 Tendons attach muscle to bone. Ligaments join bone to bone
27 How do skeletal muscles get their names? LocationLocation of origin and insertionSizeAction flexorDirectionExtensorNumber of originsDepressorHowever,not all muscles are named by the above methods!1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system27
28 2. Based on structure or form Semitendonosus Semimembranosus MYOLOGY The study of MUSCLE Origin and Insertion and Action along with Nerve supply NAMING THE SKELETAL MUSCLES1. Based on shapeDeltoidTrapeziusRhomboidius2. Based on structure or formSemitendonosusSemimembranosusSerratus Anterior3. Based on locationSupraspinatusInfraspinatusAnterior Tibialis4. Based on attachmentsBrachioradialis (brachium = humerus)Sternocleidomastoid (cleido = clavicle)5. Based on number of attachments or headsBicepsTricepsQuadriceps
29 NAMING THE SKELETAL MUSCLES NAMING THE SKELETAL MUSCLES6. Based on direction of muscle fibersobliquetransverserectus7. Based on functionadductorsabductorsextensorsflexors8. Based on combination of the aboverectus abdominusstraight muscle of the abdominal regionextensor carpi radialis longuslong muscle of the forearm which extends the wrist
31 Bell..List 5 ways that muscles are named (myology)
32 ways that muscles are named (myology) 1. Based on shape2. Based on structure or form3. Based on location4. Based on attachments5. Based on number of attachments or heads6. Based on direction of muscle fibers7. Based on function8.Based on combination of the above
35 Muscles of Head and Neck Use text pg 132. Label head and neckFactoidsYou have over 30 facial muscles which create looks like surprise, happiness, sadness, and frowning.Eye muscles are the busiest muscles in the body. Scientists estimate they may move more than 100,000 times a day!Create Flash cards, muscle one side/function on the otherAnswer I.Feel free to masticate your candy! Feel your face as you masticate, what muscle did you feel move?
38 Bell…Complete the “Who Am I” below the head you labeled on Friday
39 Upper Extremity Label J Complete Grid below it. Make flash cards (text 133)
40 Bell…Read section on page about Contraction of a Skeletal muscle.List in order sequence of actions that must occur for a muscle to contract. Starts with:1) Impulse2)3)4)5)
41 Sequence is as follows…. 1) Impulse2) Axon3) Acetylcholine4) Synaptic cleft5) Sarcolemma
42 A fun example to help students visualize the ETC! This is an example that can help students grasp the concept of how the electrons being dropped down the cristae in steps releases energy that is used to regenerate ADP into ATP. (Feel free to add more detail about H pumps or other details for your curriculum.)Most students are familiar with the snowboarders and the half pipe or even the Bobsled competitions. We are going to use these to help students to visualize electrons sliding down the cristae and regenerating ADP back into ATP.Half pipe: The half pipe looks much like cristae as it is carved down into the snow and the cristae is weaved through the mitochondria. The chair lift is the NADH or FADH2 being ‘pumped’ up the gradient where it will release the ‘electron’ (the snowboarder). (Point out to students how the NADH is only carrying one snowboarder and the FADH2 has two.)As the
44 As the snowboarder glides down from one side of the half pipe to the other, popping up and doing tricks, have students imagine that this is the electron, dropping down the cristae and ‘popping’ energy (NRG). This energy is used to add another high energy P onto ADP, creating ATP.Even though snowboarders ‘pop out’ about five tricks as they go down the half pipe, NADH can only ‘pop out’ 3 ATP’s as it travels down the cristae (FADH2 only 2 ATP’s).At the bottom of the half pipe is screaming fans, family, and friends. They are all ready to grab up their snowboarder and celebrate! At the bottom of the cristae’s gradient, is Oxygen and H+, excited to receive the electron and make water!!!The bobsled can be used also as the example that NADH is like the men’s start, which is higher up on the track and the FADH2 is compared to the women’s start. Because the women’s start is lower on the track, it doesn’t produce as much speed or energy…just like the FADH2.
51 Muscles of the lower Extremities Label MMake flash cards(text 135)The largest muscle in the body is the gluteus maximus muscle in the buttocks.
52 Bell 1) Type of muscle that moves without conscious effort_____ 2) Type of muscle that moves internal organs______3) Where a muscle attaches to a bone that does not move when the muscle contracts_______4) Tissue that attaches muscle to bone_____5) Circular band of fibers that constricts a natural body opening______
56 BellWrite a story about your favorite hobby or sports activity using terms from the Muscle System terminology list. You should NOT tell what the activity is, but write a short descriptive story (at least 1/2 page) that describes the muscles as you do your activity.Be prepared to read the stories in class, and see if classmates can guess your hobby!
57 Bell The remainder…Get out your “hobby” stories.. Complete (from packet) 6:5Complete muscle matching
58 Remainder of class Look at these Websites (only) good for planes, direction. All systemsWrite your Hobby storyLabel your muscle man/lady
59 BELL Considering that 50% of our body weight comes from muscle… Complete the worksheet, Muscle Math
60 Antagonistic muscle pair of the upper arm in action Antagonistic muscle pair of the upper arm in action. During extension of the elbow (shown at left), the triceps is contracted and the biceps is relaxed. During flexion of the elbow (shown at right), the triceps is relaxed and the biceps is contracted.
61 MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS Muscle Tone In order to function, muscles should always beslightly contracted and ready to pull.Muscle contractions may be isotonic or isometric. ISOTONIC CONTRACTIONWhen muscles contract and shorten. (Walk, talk, etc.) ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONWhen the tension in a muscle increases but the muscle does not shorten. (exercises such as tensing the abdominal muscles.)
62 MOVEMENT 1. Muscles move bones by pulling on them. 1. Muscles move bones by pulling on them.As a muscle contracts, it pulls the insertion bone closer to the origin bone. Movement occurs at the joint between the origin and the insertion.2. Groups of muscles usually contract toproduce a single movement.3. When the antagonist muscles contract, they produce a movement opposite to that of the prime movers.
63 MUSCLE FATIGUE – caused by the accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles. OXYGEN DEBT – after exercise, the amount of oxygen needed by the muscle to change lactic acid back to glucose.MUSCLE TONE - When muscles are slightly contracted and ready to pull.During muscular exercise, blood vessels in muscles dilate and blood flow is increased in order to increase the available oxygen supply. Up to a point, the available oxygen is sufficient to meet the energy needs of the body. But, when muscular exertion is very great, oxygen cannot be supplied to muscle fibers fast enough, and the aerobic breakdown of pyruvic acid cannot produce all the ATP required for further muscle contraction.
64 DiaphragmDome-shaped muscle that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities, aids in breathingDiaphragm rises whenyou breathe out.Diaphragm flattens whenyou breathe in.
65 Simon Says…. The Muscular System “The Power System” You may use your textbook if you need a reference for the muscles.1. Abduct fingers Extend foot.2. Flex right forearm Flex pectoralis major.3. Adduct arm Contract gastrocnemius.4. Flex leg Contract tibialis anterior.5. Extend leg Extend quadriceps.6. Flex fingers Flex biceps.7. Contract diaphragm Contract abdominal muscles8. Contract diaphragm Flex and rotate sartorius.9. Contract masseter Extend/contract gluteal maximus.10. Flex masseter Extend trapezius.11. Flex foot Contract/abduct deltoid.
66 Bell/payday… Complete text 142- 1-10 Text pages Apply Practice to Theory:Muscle Math
67 Complete Muscle Math(if there is a survey on your desk…please complete and give to Kasey….)
68 Muscular Disease Activity Read independently about topic Number One. Be prepared to share. (1, 3, 4, 7, and 8)You will partner with someone next to you one shares…join another group the one that did not share, must tell the new members what was shared=2 people will share. You will have 45 seconds per share time!1) ATROPHY-1382) HYPERTROPHY3) STRAIN-1384) MYALGIA –1385) TENDONITIS –6) Foot Drop-7) Fibromyalgia-1388) Muscular Dystrophy-139
69 Disorders and Related Terminology ATROPHY – wasting awayof muscle due to lack of use.HYPERTROPHY – an increase in the size of the muscle cell.
70 Using NC careers book Choose one career from the Therapy section Describe:Work EnvironmentAcademic requirementsArea of Specialty**O.T.video segment**
71 Disorders and Related Terminology STRAIN – tear in the muscle resulting from excessive use. Bleeding inside the muscle can result in pain and swelling. Ice packs will help stop bleeding and reduce swelling.R-restI-IceC-CompressionE-ElevateMUSCLE SPASM (cramp) – sustained contraction of the muscle, usually because of overuse.MYALGIA – muscle painTENDONITIS – inflammation of a tendonFoot Drop- a common Contracture.Fibromyalgia- chronic , widespread pain in specific muscles
73 How many types of Muscular Dystrophy are there? 9 Web Review Answer KeyMuscular DystrophyHow many types of Muscular Dystrophy are there? 9Which type is also known as Pseudohypertrophic MD? Duchenne Muscular DystrophyWhat causes congenital muscular dystrophy? geneticWhat are some recent research developments that have occurred as a result MDA contributions? Answer variesWhat is the national magazine for MDA? QuestWhat MDA clinic is nearest to your home? Answer variesWhat type of Muscular Dystrophy occurs usually in adults over age 40? Distal Muscular DystrophyWhat symptom do all types of Muscular Dystrophy have in common? Muscle weaknessMarilla is 19 years old and is diagnosed with a type of Muscular Dystrophy that causes weakness in her shoulders and hips. Her physician assures her that she will likely live long enough to join the AARP. Is that possible? If so, what type of MD does she have? Yes – Limb-Girdle MDCarlotta is a 21 year old college student who has been diagnosed with Becker Muscular Dystrophy. What health professional can be helpful in helping her stay in school and meet the demands of her college schedule? Occupational TherapistTrue or False? Muscular Dystrophy is incurable? TrueTrue or False? Muscular Dystrophy is untreatable? FalseWhat are the goals of rehabilitation for someone with Muscular Dystrophy?The goals of rehabilitation in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) are to maximize and prolong independent function and locomotion, inhibit physical deformity, and provide access to full integration into society
74 BellMake sure you have answered all of the Muscular Dystrophy QuestionsText pages
75 bell… From textbook complete page 142 compare and contrast- Clean and bring up your write on muscle manMake sure your name is on your packet and turn it in after completing compare and contrast!Take apart your arm…turn in the gold brads