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Unit F: Muscular System Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the muscles. Specific Objectives: Explain the structure of the muscles. Analyze the function.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit F: Muscular System Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the muscles. Specific Objectives: Explain the structure of the muscles. Analyze the function."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit F: Muscular System Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the muscles. Specific Objectives: Explain the structure of the muscles. Analyze the function of the muscular system. Discuss characteristics and treatment of common muscle disorders.

2 Bell…… List the functions of the muscular system, chapter starts on page 123 (do not eat your candy)

3 Describe the structure of the muscles the power system A.Muscles 1.Nearly half our weight comes from muscle tissue 2.There are 650 different muscles in the human body 3.Muscles give shape and form 4.Muscles produce body heat

4 THREE MAIN FUNCTIONS Responsible for all body movement. Responsible for body form and shape (posture) Responsible for body heat and maintaining body temperature.

5 Bell What are the 3 types of muscles? What is the difference in voluntary and involuntary muscles?

6 Three types of muscle

7 Types of muscle tissue Skeletal Skeletal Muscle Attached to bone Striated (striped) appearance VOLUNTARY Multinucleated muscle cell bundles (muscle cells = muscle fibers) SARCOLEMMA = cell membrane Contract quickly, fatigue easily, cant maintain contraction for long period of time

8 Types of muscle tissue. Smooth Smooth Muscle Visceral (organ) muscle Found in walls of digestive system, uterus and blood vessels Cells small and spindle- shaped INVOLUNTARY Controlled by autonomic nervous system Act slowly, do not tire easily, can remain contracted for long time

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10 1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system Structures of the muscular system Types of Muscle Sphincter muscles Also called dilator muscles Also called dilator muscles Special, circular muscles Special, circular muscles Located in the Located in the digestive system digestive system urinary system urinary system 10

11 1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system Structures of the muscular system Types of muscle Skeletal Smooth Cardiac Sphincter 11

12 1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system Structures of the muscular system 12 Types of Connective tissue Tendons Fascia

13 1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system Structures of the muscular system 13 Connective tissue Tendons dense bands that connect skeletal muscle to the bone

14 1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system Structures of the muscular system 14 Connective tissue Fascia Fascia Fibrous connective tissue sheets that wrap around muscle bundles

15 CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCLES CONTRACTIBILITY – the ability of a muscle to reduce the distance between the parts of its contents or the space it surrounds. EXCITEABILITY (IRRITABILITY) – the ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing impulses. http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/muscletiss ue/contraction/coupling/animation.html http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/muscletiss ue/contraction/coupling/animation.html EXTENSIBILITY – the ability to be stretched. ELASTICITY – ability of muscle to return to its original length when relaxing.

16 Bell… Create a quiz For penia-uria (is that right?) Include all Be creative The most creative and with a KEY..WINS

17 Muscles move bones by pulling on them. As a muscle contracts, it pulls the insertion bone closer to the origin bone. Movement occurs at the joint between the origin and the insertion. Rule: A muscles insertion bone moves toward its origin bone. Groups of muscles usually contract to produce a single movement. MOTOR UNIT – a motor neuron plus all the muscle fibers it stimulates. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION – the junction between the motor neurons fiber which transmits the impulse – and the muscle cell membrane. ACETYLCHOLINE – chemical neurotransmitter, diffuses across the synaptic cleft (carries impulse across synaptic cleft) http://www.getbodysmart.com /ap/muscletissue/contraction/actionpotentials/animation.htmlhttp://www.get bodysmart.com/ap/muscletissue/contraction/actionpotentials/animation.html http://www.getbodysmart.com /ap/muscletissue/contraction/actionpotentials/animation.htmlhttp://www.get bodysmart.com/ap/muscletissue/contraction/actionpotentials/animation.html http://www.yucky.com/noflash/body/pg000123.html

18 Characteristics of Muscles ContractibilityExcitabilityExtensibilityElasticity 1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system 18

19 Characteristics of Muscles Contractibility 1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system 19

20 Characteristics of Muscles Contractibility Myoneural stimulation + contraction of muscle proteins = movement and heat 1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system 20

21 Characteristics of Muscles The sodium-potassium pump of the membrane of a muscle cell. The purpose of this slide is to illustrate the complexity of the process of movement. 1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system 21 Contractibility Neurotransmitter at site of muscle stimulus.

22 Characteristics of Muscles Excitability 1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system 22

23 Characteristics of Muscles Extensibility 1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system 23

24 Characteristics of Muscles Elasticity 1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system 24

25 Characteristics of Muscles Elasticity 1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system 25

26 Tendons attach muscle to bone. Ligaments join bone to bone

27 1.04 Remember the structures of the muscular system How do skeletal muscles get their names? Location Size Direction Number of origins Location of origin and insertion Action flexor Extensor Depressor 27 However,However, not all muscles are named by the above methods!not all muscles are named by the above methods!

28 MYOLOGY The study of MUSCLE Origin and Insertion and Action along with Nerve supply NAMING THE SKELETAL MUSCLES 1. Based on shape Deltoid Trapezius Rhomboidius 2. Based on structure or form Semitendonosus Semimembranosus Serratus Anterior 3. Based on location Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Anterior Tibialis 4. Based on attachments Brachioradialis (brachium = humerus) Sternocleidomastoid (cleido = clavicle) 5. Based on number of attachments or heads Biceps Triceps Quadriceps

29 NAMING THE SKELETAL MUSCLES 6. Based on direction of muscle fibers oblique transverse rectus 7. Based on function adductors abductors extensors flexors 8. Based on combination of the above rectus abdominus straight muscle of the abdominal region extensor carpi radialis longus long muscle of the forearm which extends the wrist

30 Muscles named for their direction

31 Bell.. List 5 ways that muscles are named (myology)

32 ways that muscles are named (myology) 1. Based on shape 2. Based on structure or form 3. Based on location 4. Based on attachments 5. Based on number of attachments or heads 6. Based on direction of muscle fibers 7. Based on function 8.Based on combination of the above

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35 Muscles of Head and Neck Use text pg 132. Label head and neck Factoids You have over 30 facial muscles which create looks like surprise, happiness, sadness, and frowning. Eye muscles are the busiest muscles in the body. Scientists estimate they may move more than 100,000 times a day! Create Flash cards, muscle one side/function on the other Answer I. Feel free to masticate your candy! Feel your face as you masticate, what muscle did you feel move?

36 Major cervical muscles

37 Anterior and posterior cervical triangles.

38 Bell… Complete the Who Am I below the head you labeled on Friday

39 Upper Extremity Label J Complete Grid below it. Make flash cards (text 133)

40 Bell… Read section on page 126-127 about Contraction of a Skeletal muscle. List in order sequence of actions that must occur for a muscle to contract. Starts with: 1) Impulse 2) 3) 4) 5)

41 Sequence is as follows…. 1) Impulse 2) Axon 3) Acetylcholine 4) Synaptic cleft 5) Sarcolemma

42 A fun example to help students visualize the ETC! This is an example that can help students grasp the concept of how the electrons being dropped down the cristae in steps releases energy that is used to regenerate ADP into ATP. (Feel free to add more detail about H pumps or other details for your curriculum.) Most students are familiar with the snowboarders and the half pipe or even the Bobsled competitions. We are going to use these to help students to visualize electrons sliding down the cristae and regenerating ADP back into ATP. Half pipe: The half pipe looks much like cristae as it is carved down into the snow and the cristae is weaved through the mitochondria. The chair lift is the NADH or FADH2 being pumped up the gradient where it will release the electron (the snowboarder). (Point out to students how the NADH is only carrying one snowboarder and the FADH2 has two.) As the

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44 As the snowboarder glides down from one side of the half pipe to the other, popping up and doing tricks, have students imagine that this is the electron, dropping down the cristae and popping energy (NRG). This energy is used to add another high energy P onto ADP, creating ATP. Even though snowboarders pop out about five tricks as they go down the half pipe, NADH can only pop out 3 ATPs as it travels down the cristae (FADH2 only 2 ATPs). At the bottom of the half pipe is screaming fans, family, and friends. They are all ready to grab up their snowboarder and celebrate! At the bottom of the cristaes gradient, is Oxygen and H+, excited to receive the electron and make water!!! The bobsled can be used also as the example that NADH is like the mens start, which is higher up on the track and the FADH2 is compared to the womens start. Because the womens start is lower on the track, it doesnt produce as much speed or energy…just like the FADH2.

45 What is missing?

46 Upper extremities Label J and answer questions/grid

47 Muscles of the Trunk

48 Label K Make Flash Cards (text 134)

49 Lower extremities

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51 Muscles of the lower Extremities Label M Make flash cards (text 135) The largest muscle in the body is the gluteus maximus muscle in the buttocks.

52 Bell 1) Type of muscle that moves without conscious effort_____ 2) Type of muscle that moves internal organs______ 3) Where a muscle attaches to a bone that does not move when the muscle contracts_______ 4) Tissue that attaches muscle to bone_____ 5) Circular band of fibers that constricts a natural body opening______

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54 Labeling… Need pix anterior

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56 Bell Write a story about your favorite hobby or sports activity using 10-15 terms from the Muscle System terminology list. You should NOT tell what the activity is, but write a short descriptive story (at least 1/2 page) that describes the muscles as you do your activity. Be prepared to read the stories in class, and see if classmates can guess your hobby!

57 Bell The remainder…Get out your hobby stories.. Complete (from packet) 6:5 Complete muscle matching

58 Remainder of class Look at these Websites (only) http://www.teachpe.com/cloze/label_the_muscle.htm http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072919329/student_view0/animations.html...animation good for planes, direction. All systems http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072919329/student_view0/animations.html...animation http://homepage.smc.edu/wissmann_paul/muscleflas hcards/ http://homepage.smc.edu/wissmann_paul/muscleflas hcards/ http://www.human-body-facts.com/human-body- muscle-diagram.html http://www.human-body-facts.com/human-body- muscle-diagram.html Write your Hobby story Label your muscle man/lady

59 BELL Considering that 50% of our body weight comes from muscle… Complete the worksheet, Muscle Math

60 Antagonistic muscle pair of the upper arm in action. During extension of the elbow (shown at left), the triceps is contracted and the biceps is relaxed. During flexion of the elbow (shown at right), the triceps is relaxed and the biceps is contracted.

61 MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS Muscle Tone In order to function, muscles should always be slightly contracted and ready to pull. Muscle contractions may be isotonic or isometric. ISOTONIC CONTRACTION When muscles contract and shorten. (Walk, talk, etc.) ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION When the tension in a muscle increases but the muscle does not shorten. (exercises such as tensing the abdominal muscles.)

62 MOVEMENT 1. Muscles move bones by pulling on them. As a muscle contracts, it pulls the insertion bone closer to the origin bone. Movement occurs at the joint between the origin and the insertion. 2.Groups of muscles usually contract to produce a single movement. 3.When the antagonist muscles contract, they produce a movement opposite to that of the prime movers.

63 MUSCLE FATIGUE – caused by the accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles. OXYGEN DEBT – after exercise, the amount of oxygen needed by the muscle to change lactic acid back to glucose. MUSCLE TONE - When muscles are slightly contracted and ready to pull. During muscular exercise, blood vessels in muscles dilate and blood flow is increased in order to increase the available oxygen supply. Up to a point, the available oxygen is sufficient to meet the energy needs of the body. But, when muscular exertion is very great, oxygen cannot be supplied to muscle fibers fast enough, and the aerobic breakdown of pyruvic acid cannot produce all the ATP required for further muscle contraction.

64 Dome-shaped muscle that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities, aids in breathing Diaphragm flattens when you breathe in. Diaphragm rises when you breathe out.

65 Simon Says…. The Muscular System The Power System You may use your textbook if you need a reference for the muscles. 1.Abduct fingers.12. Extend foot. 2.Flex right forearm13. Flex pectoralis major. 3.Adduct arm14. Contract gastrocnemius. 4.Flex leg.15. Contract tibialis anterior. 5.Extend leg.16 Extend quadriceps. 6.Flex fingers17. Flex biceps. 7.Contract diaphragm.18.Contract abdominal muscles 8. Contract diaphragm.19. Flex and rotate sartorius. 9.Contract masseter.20. Extend/contract gluteal maximus. 10. Flex masseter.21. Extend trapezius. 11. Flex foot.22. Contract/abduct deltoid.

66 Bell/payday… Complete text 142- 1-10 Text pages Apply Practice to Theory:143 1-6 Muscle Math

67 Complete Muscle Math (if there is a survey on your desk…please complete and give to Kasey….)

68 Muscular Disease Activity Read independently about topic Number One. Be prepared to share. (1, 3, 4, 7, and 8) You will partner with someone next to you one shares…join another group the one that did not share, must tell the new members what was shared=2 people will share. You will have 45 seconds per share time! 1) ATROPHY-138 2) HYPERTROPHY 3) STRAIN-138 4) MYALGIA –138 5) TENDONITIS – 6) Foot Drop- 7) Fibromyalgia-138 8) Muscular Dystrophy-139 http://www.online-stopwatch.com/

69 ATROPHY – wasting away of muscle due to lack of use. HYPERTROPHY – an increase in the size of the muscle cell.

70 Using NC careers book Choose one career from the Therapy section Describe: Work Environment Academic requirements Area of Specialty **O.T.video segment**

71 STRAIN – tear in the muscle resulting from excessive use. Bleeding inside the muscle can result in pain and swelling. Ice packs will help stop bleeding and reduce swelling. R-rest I-Ice C-Compression E-Elevate MUSCLE SPASM (cramp) – sustained contraction of the muscle, usually because of overuse. MYALGIA – muscle pain TENDONITIS – inflammation of a tendon Foot Drop- a common Contracture. Fibromyalgia- chronic, widespread pain in specific muscles

72 Text 132- 133 Theory 1-6

73 Web Review Answer Key Muscular Dystrophy How many types of Muscular Dystrophy are there? 9 Which type is also known as Pseudohypertrophic MD? Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy What causes congenital muscular dystrophy? genetic What are some recent research developments that have occurred as a result MDA contributions? Answer varies What is the national magazine for MDA? Quest What MDA clinic is nearest to your home? Answer varies What type of Muscular Dystrophy occurs usually in adults over age 40? Distal Muscular Dystrophy What symptom do all types of Muscular Dystrophy have in common? Muscle weakness Marilla is 19 years old and is diagnosed with a type of Muscular Dystrophy that causes weakness in her shoulders and hips. Her physician assures her that she will likely live long enough to join the AARP. Is that possible? If so, what type of MD does she have? Yes – Limb-Girdle MD Carlotta is a 21 year old college student who has been diagnosed with Becker Muscular Dystrophy. What health professional can be helpful in helping her stay in school and meet the demands of her college schedule? Occupational Therapist True or False? Muscular Dystrophy is incurable? True True or False? Muscular Dystrophy is untreatable? False What are the goals of rehabilitation for someone with Muscular Dystrophy? The goals of rehabilitation in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) are to maximize and prolong independent function and locomotion, inhibit physical deformity, and provide access to full integration into society

74 Bell Make sure you have answered all of the Muscular Dystrophy Questions Text pages 142 1-10

75 bell… From textbook complete page 142 compare and contrast- Clean and bring up your write on muscle man Make sure your name is on your packet and turn it in after completing compare and contrast! Take apart your arm…turn in the gold brads


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