Beginning of Product Labeling 1939, the Wool Products Labeling Act was passed which stated that all types of wool (virgin and recycled) must be labeled 1951, the Fur Products Labeling Act required that the name of the animal and country of origin must be on a label attached to the item. 1953, the Flammable Fabrics Act stated that fabric or clothing that would be so flammable that it would be dangerous to wear must not be sold.
Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (TFPIA) Effective on March 3, 1960 Fiber Generic Name Only The United States, the District of Columbia, and the Territories and possessions of the United States. Amended on February 1, 1981 Label now requires: 1.Fiber content 2.Country of origin 3.Manufacturer or dealer identity United Piece Dye Works 1964
Fiber Content Listed by generic fiber names Percentages of each fiber by weight Descending order Trade names (trademarks) may be in included Generic name must be available on the label with the same appearance as the trade name.
Generic Fiber Names Acetate (Triacetate) Acrylic Anidex Aramid Azlon Elastoester Fluoropolymer Glass Melamine Metallic Modacrylic Novoloid Nylon Nytril Olefin (Lastol or CEF) PBI PLA Polyester (Elasterell-p) Rayon (Lyocell) Rubber (Lastrile) Saran Spandex Sulfar Vinal Vinyon These are the man-made, generic fiber names (with subclasses) that the Federal Trade Commission states may be included in a product label:
Other Generic Fiber Names Alginate Carbon Chlorofibre Cupro Elastane Elastodiene Fluorofibre Metal Fibre Modal Polyamide Polyethylene Polyimide Polypropylene Vinylal Viscose. These generic fibers are not listed in the Textile, Wool and Fur Acts and Rules, but may be used:
Items not included in label Non-fibrous materials Glass Leather Metal Paint Plastic Wood Items that are used on the garment that are not made from fabric, yarn or fiber. Beads Buttons Sequins Zippers.
Unknown Fibers If any of the fibers of a product are unknown, they must be labeled as unknown and with a percentage. Product labels may list fiber content even if it is not required. If a product is not required to have a label, but mentions a fiber used in their product, it must have a label with fiber percentages.
Percentages Fibers that make up at least 5% of the percentage weight must be listed Any fiber that is less than 5% and has a significant effect on the product must be listed. Spandex is the common example because only a small amount of Spandex is needed to create an elastic effect. If there are several other fibers that make up an amount greater than 5%, but do not change the characteristics of the product, they may be listed all together as Other Fibers.
Mislabeling Products are considered mislabeled: 1.If they have fibers that should be labeled and are not mentioned 2.Fibers, their trade names, and their percentages do not all have the same appearance No information about a fiber may be falsified in any product. Two fabrics whose labels guaranteed product was genuine in name and fiber content. Because of patents, imitators had to use different fiber percentages. - Textiles: Fiber to Fabric, 1967
3% Tolerance Based on the inconsistency in the manufacturing process For example, if a product states that it is 80% cotton and it is only 78% or 79%, it is within the 3% tolerance. The 3% tolerance is only for companies that unknowingly have differences in fiber content Purposeful mislabeling is unlawful.
Ornamentation/Trim Ornamentation is created by fibers or yarns and only must be listed if it makes up more than 5% of the fiber weight of the fabric. Trims are different from ornamentation and must be labeled only if they cover more than 15% of the surface area of the product, and are made from a different fiber. A superimposed fiber is an extra fiber added to a particular part of a product for function and must be mentioned on the label with fiber and percentage. If the fiber content in one section of a structural part of a garment (not ornamentation) is different from another section, it must be labeled.
Special Fibers Pile fabrics that are made from different fibers must be labeled. Biconstituent fibers are a mixture of two or more manufactured fibers that are combined and extruded into a yarn and must be labeled. Premium cotton fibers (Pima, Egyptian, or Sea Island) must be labeled with their percentages anywhere on the garment that the premium name is used. Acrylic and Polyester Pile Fabric Pima Cotton Synthetic Fibers
Wool Products All wool products, in the whole garment or the lining, must also be listed in product care labels, no matter the percentage Wool fibers are those made from sheep or lamb. Virgin products Recycled products. Angora goat, Cashmere goat, camel, alpaca, llama, or vicuna are also considered to be wool fibers, but must be labeled with their specific name in a care label and if they are recycled.
Linings/Interlinings Linings, interlinings, fillings and paddings need to be listed if they are for warmth No listed for structural purposes in fiber or non- fiber garments (leather, rubber, etc) When they are listed, they must be listed separately from the outer part of the garment, even if they are made from the same fiber
Country of Origin Finished stage that are ready for sale to a consumer. Textile products only Zippers, buttons or other components do not need to be labeled The FTC does not require a partially made garment to be labeled, but the US Customs Service may require the item to be labeled with the country of origin. Label all construction component locations All disclosure information must be the same size, and labeling must be in English.
Made in A fabric that is made in England may be shipped to the United States to be constructed. For that product, the label may state Made in the USA, but must include with it of fabric made in England, or of imported fabric. The FTC does not require that a product to state where it is imported from, but must state that it is imported. US Customs may require that England be listed.
Made in the USA In a label with multiple countries, one country may not be larger or apart from another country. All disclosures are to be the same size. If a product states that it is Made in the USA, it must be made from start to finish in the United States, exclusive of fibers and yarns. If there is any part that is not made in the U. S., it must be labeled.
Manufacturer/Dealer The company name of the manufacturer, importer, or dealer must be listed or their Register Identification Number (RN). An RN is a number that is issued to companies within the U. S. only, which registers them with the FTC. This number is not required for a company to do business, but some companies may require the company they are dealing with to have an RN. The letters RN are listed before the number for easy identification. For wool, the FTC previously issued Wool Products Labeling (WPL) numbers that some companies still use today. The FTC is now issuing only Registered Identification Numbers.
Products that must be labeled Clothing fibers yarns fabrics handkerchiefs scarves Umbrellas Home accessories Bedding Curtains/draperies Tablecloths/napkins Floor coverings Towels Ironing board covers Batting Flags Cushions slip covers Blankets Sleeping bags Doilies Hammocks Furniture scarves. Items that are packaged need to have product information visible, whether seen on the garment through a clear package or directly on the package. Hosiery does not need to be labeled separately, but T- shirts must be labeled separately. Socks, mittens, gloves and linens must have one part that is labeled if sold in a set.
Placement of Labels The fiber content, country of origin and manufacturer may appear on one label or on different labels. The fiber content and manufacturer may appear on the back of the label. The country of origin must be on the front of the label either placed at the neck or the waistband of a garment. Fiber content and manufacturer must be attached in easy reach. Placement along the neck, waistband or side seam of a garment is acceptable. Product labels are not required to be permanently attached
Care Labeling Ruling In 1972, the FTC established the Care Labeling Rule which specified that clothing labels must carry information about washing, dry cleaning and pressing. The Care Labeling Rule was updated on September 1, 2000 New definitions of hot, warm and cold water Consistent with definitions used by the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC)
What is a Care Label? A care label as defined by the Federal Trade Commission (2000) means a permanent label or tag, containing regular care information and instructions, that is attached or affixed in such a manner that it will not become separated from the product and will remain legible during the useful life of the product. (p. 1) The term label includes a label, stamp, tag, or other types of identification.
Products that do and do not Require Care Labeling Clothing worn to cover or protect the body except for shoes, gloves, and hats. Home apparel items should be labeled except trim less than 5 inches wide and fabric shorter than 10 yards long. Items that do not cover the body, for example, neckties and belts, are not included. Any non-woven item that is only used once does not need to have a care label.
Washable If a product is washable it must state whether it can be washed by hand or by machine. Include the water temperature appropriate for the product.
Bleach If a product can handle any type of bleach (chlorine or oxygen bleach) on a regular basis, it does not need to be mentioned in the label. If chlorine bleach would harm a product, it must be included in the label Only non-Chlorine Bleach. If any type of bleach would harm a garment, the label must state Do Not Bleach.
Drying If a product is to be dried it must state whether it should be dried by machine or some other method. The temperature is not required, unless it would be damaged by high temperatures.
Ironing If a product is to be ironed regularly, it must be labeled. Temperature of the iron is not necessary, unless a high temperature would harm the product.
Warnings Any kind of care method that would harm a product must be mentioned on the care label using words like Do not, No, and Only. Any care to the product that will affect appearance after care must be stated. Any care that may cause harm to another product must be included on the label.
Dry-cleaning The words dry-clean may be placed on a care label with no other instruction if any dry-cleaning solvent can be used without damage to the garment. If only a certain type of solvent may be used, that must be labeled. If a garment can be washed without damage, it may not say dry-clean only
Wetcleaning Wetcleaning is a new method of cleaning using water-based chemicals that has not been perfected, but claims to be environmentally safe The term professionally wetclean was not included in the Care Label Ruling in 2000 because a standard for wetcleaning could not be set.
Care Labeling Guidelines Companies must provide a permanent label that gives regular care instructions for a garment that will not harm the garment. These labels may only include words; symbols are not necessary. Symbols may be used without words, but they must be defined on a hang tag. Companies must prove that the care methods are correct by testing garments before they are sold. A care label may be on the reverse side of a product label.
Violators of TFPIA and Care Labeling Ruling A company which violates any labeling rules may be: Asked to stop the practice which violates the act $11,000 Pay up to $11,000 for each violation