3 Energy Flow (Trophic Levels) Producers- make their own foodConsumers- get energy from consuming producers
4 ProducersProducers- capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use the energy to produce food.Producers are autotrophs- they make food from their environment
5 2 main types of autotrophs Another type gets energy without light- by chemosynthesisOne type gets energy from the sun-by photosynthesis
6 ConsumersConsumers are heterotrophs- get energy from other organisms
7 Types of Consumers Herbivores- eat only plants Carnivores- eat animals Omnivores- eat both plants and animalsDetritivores- eat dead matter (plants and animals)
8 Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from:1. the sun or inorganic compounds2. To autotrophs (producers)3. To heterotrophs (consumers)Decomposers get energy from decomposing dead organisms
9 Food Chain- a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten. Food Web- A network of feeding relationships.(More realistic that a food chain)
13 Trophic levelsEach step in a food chain or a food web is called a trophic level.Producers are the first trophic levelConsumers are the second, third, or higher trophic levelEach trophic level depends on the one below for energy
14 Energy PyramidOnly part of the energy stored in one level can be passed to the next- most energy is consumed for life processes (respiration, movement, etc., and heat is given off)Only 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms in the next trophic level
15 Biomass PyramidBiomass- the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level.A biomass pyramid represents the amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem.
17 Energy Losses Energy transfers are never 100 percent efficient Some energy is lost at each stepLimits the number of trophic levels in an ecosystemEnergy flow is a one way path! (not a cycle)
18 All Heat in the EndAt each trophic level, the bulk of the energy received from the previous level is used in metabolismThis energy is released as heat energy and lost to the ecosystemEventually, all energy is released as heat
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