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Unit G: Hematology Explain the structure of the blood. Analyze the function of the blood. Discuss characteristics and treatments of common blood disorders.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit G: Hematology Explain the structure of the blood. Analyze the function of the blood. Discuss characteristics and treatments of common blood disorders."— Presentation transcript:


2 Unit G: Hematology Explain the structure of the blood. Analyze the function of the blood. Discuss characteristics and treatments of common blood disorders

3 Assignment Find in your packet the page titled Blood Anticipation Guide. Read the instructions carefully! Complete.

4 Bell/Payday! List the functions of the Blood! Goals: Explain structures of the blood »Analyze the functions of the blood »Discuss characteristics and treatment of common blood disorders

5 Average adult = 8-10 pints of blood Functions: Transports nutrients, oxygen, cellular waste products, and hormones Aids in distribution of heat Regulates acid-base balance Helps protect against infection

6 Ha! Why did the blonde nurse take a red magic marker to work? So she could draw blood! I just had to tell you that one I heard the other day. Funny, even if I am blonde( sometimes)!!

7 PLASMA – liquid portion of blood without cellular components Serum – plasma after a blood clot is formed Cellular elements are red cells, white cells, and platelets

8 PLASMA Straw colored, contains – Water Blood proteins Plasma proteins: FIBRONOGEN – necessary for blood clotting, synthesized in the liver ALBUMIN – from the liver, helps maintain bloods osmotic pressure and volume PROTHROMBIN – a globulin which helps blood coagulate. Vitamin K necessary for prothrombin synthesis. Nutrients Electrolytes Hormones, vitamins, enzymes


10 Bell Complete the 2 nd ½ of Blood anticipation guide List all functions of blood …when you finish come show me your work!

11 Read page 243 The first person to write down and show me ( in medical/scientific terms) what do smarties and RBCs have in common wins a prize!

12 Bell What % of blood is Plasma? What % of blood is formed ? What is in formed?

13 ERYTHROCYTES Shape = biconcave discs HEMOGLOBIN – gives red color, heme is iron and globin is protein. Function = transports oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from cells Normal – men =14-18 gm, women = gm

14 Function of Hemoglobin Red cells travel through the lungs where O2 is carried to tissues and released CO2 picked up and carried back to lungs for exchange

15 Arterial blood – lots of oxygen = bright red Oxyhemiglobin-bright red color

16 Venous blood – lots of CO2 = dark crimson Carbiminohemiglobin-crimson blue

17 What is carbon monoxide poisoning? Hemoglobin readily accepts carbon monoxide - even over the life giving oxygen atoms (as much as 200 times as readily as oxygen) forming a toxic compound known as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). By replacing oxygen with carbon monoxide in our blood, our bodies poison themselves by cutting off the needed oxygen to our organs and cells, causing various amounts of damage - depending on exposure.

18 red blood cells……….. ERYTHROPOIESIS –Manufacture of red blood cells –Occurs in bone marrow Red cells live 120 days Old cells broken down by the spleen and liver HEMOLYSIS – rupture or bursting of erythrocyte, can be from a blood transfusion or disease. Page 148 workbook A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

19 Bell Complete b from page …I Am the Red Blood Cell This has been copied and is in your packets!

20 Bell Page workbook A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

21 Bell…. Define the function of a Leukocyte

22 Leukocytes-Defends body from injury and disease Larger than erythrocytes 5 types Normal leukocyte count = 3,200 – 9,800 Types of White Cells Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Lymphocytes Monocytes

23 Leukocytes are divided into two classes: Granulocytes - grainules Agrainulocytes without grainules Classification is due to the presence of cytoplasmic grainules & a reaction of a Wright Stain

24 1/2/4 discussion…45 second time limit Granulocytes Agrainulocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Lymphocytes Monocytes

25 - Granulocytes make up 50% to 60% of all leukocytes. Granulocytes are themselves divided into three classes: neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Granulocytes get their name because they contain 30% to 40% of all leukocytes. Lymphocytes come in two classes: B cells (those that mature in bone marrow) and T cells (those that mature in the thymus). Neutraphils-Immune defense (phagocytosos Eosinophils- Defense against parasites Basophils- Inflamatory response. Histamine. Produce HEPARIN – an anticoagulant

26 Monocyte – Formed in the bone marrow and spleen, Monocytes protect against blood-borne pathogens. Assist in phagocytosis. Move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues. Lymphocyte - Lymphocytes make up up 7% or so of all leukocytes. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human body's immune system.white blood cellimmune system T-lymphocyte from thymus B-lymphocyte formed in bone marrow. Agranulocytes 2 divisions

27 Classes of Blood Cells Erythrocytes-Oxygen and carbon Dioxide trandsport Neutraphils-Immune defense (phagocytosos) Eosinophils- Defense against parasites Basophils- Inflamatory response. Histamine. Produce HEPARIN – an anticoagulant B-lymphocytes- Antibody production T- lymphocytes Cellular Immune response Monocytes-Immune defense (phagocytosos) Platelets-Blood clotting

28 Bell Define phagocytosis

29 PHAGOCYTOSIS – process when white cells surround, engulf, and digest harmful bacteria..All leukocytes except Lymphocytes can…..

30 DIAPEDESIS – when white cells LEUKOCYTES move through capillary wall into neighboring tissue.

31 Leukocytes are divided into two classes: Granulocytes - grainules (Megablasts)-origin Red Bone Marrow Neutraphils -Immune defense (phagocytosos) Eosinophils - Defense against parasites, increase with alergic reactions.(phagocytosos) Basophils - Inflamatory response. Histamine. Produce HEPARIN – an anticoagulant Agranulocytes 2 divisions 1) Monocyte – Formed in the bone marrow and spleen, Monocytes protect against blood-borne pathogens. Assist in phagocytosis. Move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues. 2) Lymphocyte - Lymphocytes make up up 7% or so of all leukocytes. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human body's immune system. white blood cellimmune system –T-lymphocyte from thymus –B-lymphocyte formed in bone marrow.

32 Bodys reaction to chemical or physical trauma PATHOGENIC – disease producing microorganisms can cause inflammation Symptoms – redness, local heat, swelling and pain Why? Bacterial toxins, increased blood flow, collection of plasma in tissues (edema) HISTAMINE increases the blood flow to the injured area

33 Why do we need LEUKOCYTES?? top of 3 rd pg of outline PUS produced – a combination of dead tissue, dead and living bacteria, dead leukocytes and plasma ABSCESS – pus-filled cavity below the epidermis PYREXIA – increase in body temperature by the hypothalamus – in response to pathogenic invasion LEUKOCYTOSIS – increase in the number of white cells in response to infection LEUKOPENIA – decrease in number of white cells due to chemotherapy or radiation Workbook page E,F,G(ck pkt) Worksheet Top ½ The Blood

34 Bell/payday If you missed any portion of class yesterday, see me! Complete…..Workbook G page 156- already copied in pkt!

35 Workbook E, F

36 Career exploration (Name of career, Area of speculation, work environment, Academic requirements, Salary range, Educational programs ) Choose One… Clinical Laboratory Scientist ( medical technologist ) Clinical Laboratory Technician ( Med. Lab. Tech) Phlebotomist Hematologist Biomedical Scientist Any other ideas??

37 Bell Workbook 149 answer 7 and 8

38 THROMBOCYTES (Platelets) Smallest of solid components of blood Synthesized in red marrow Not cells – fragments of megakaryocytes Necessary for the initiation of the blood clotting process 250,000 to 450,000 per ml.

39 COAGULATION Cut or injury platelets and injured tissue release THROMBOPLASTIN act on PROTHROMBIN in plasma + Calcium ions converts to THROMBIN the thrombin acts as an enzyme and changes FIBRINOGEN FIBRIN creating a mesh that traps red blood cells, platelets and plasma creating a blood clot. See Transparency

40 Clotting…. ANTICOAGULANTS – prevent blood clotting HEPARIN = antiprothrombin PROTHROMBIN – dependent on Vitamin K W/B H (already in Pkt) Word bank pg 154

41 Complete (worksheet) Functions of Blood Cells Quick review… Plasma-Straw colored, contains: Water, Blood proteins Erythrocytes-Function = transports oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from cells Leukocytes-Defends body from injury and disease Platelets- initiation of the blood clotting process

42 Bell Name the 4 blood types

43 Are you my type? Four major types of blood- A, B, AB and O Inherited from parents Determined by presence or absence of an ANTIGEN on the surface of the red blood cell Example-Type A blood has antigen A Type O has neither Antigen A or B

44 BLOOD TYPES ANTIBODY – a protein in the plasma that will inactivate a foreign substance that enters the body. Someone with type A blood has b antibodies Someone with type B blood has a antibodies Someone with type AB blood has no antibodies Someone with type O blood has a and b antibodies UNIVERSAL DONOR – O UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT – AB See poster

45 Blood Simulated Transfusion Compatibility

46 Step 6: Rinse the Patient cup. Add liquid from Group B to the Patient cup. Step 7: Repeat step 5 using blood from the Group B cup. Step 8: Repeat step 6 Step 9: Repeat step 5 using blood from the Group AB cup. Step 10: Repeat step 6 Step 11: Repeat step 5 using liquid from the Group O cup Step 12: Which blood groups can safely give blood to the patient who had Group B blood? slideAs Long as liquid does NOT change color=safe! Step 1: Label paper cups with Group A, Group B, Group AB, Group O. Label The empty cup patient. Step 2: : Fill four cups about 2/3 full with water. Leave the fifth cup empty Step 3: Add red color to cup A, blue to cup B, and equal amounts of red and blue to cup AB; do not add food coloring to cup O Step 4: Pour a small amount of liquid from cup B into Patient cup. Patient now has that type of blood. Step 5: Using a medicine dropper, transfer blood from Group A to Patient cup. Did the color change in patient cup? Record your findings as either safe or unsafe.

47 As long as the liquid in the patient cup does not change color the transfussion is safe!

48 Classwork/homework Blood typing study guide

49 Erythroblastosis fetalis Determining a person's blood type is very important if she becomes pregnant. Blood cells from the unborn baby (fetal red blood cells) can cross over into the mother's bloodstream, especially at delivery. If the mother and her baby have compatible blood types, the crossover does not present any danger. However, if the blood types are incompatible, the mother's immune system manufactures antibodies against the baby's blood. Usually, this incompatibility is not a factor in a first pregnancy, because few fetal blood cells reach the mother's bloodstream until delivery. The antibodies that form after delivery cannot affect the first child. In later pregnancies, fetuses and babies may be in grave danger. The danger arises from the possibility that the mother's antibodies will attack the fetal red blood cells. If this happens, the fetus or baby can suffer severe health effects and may die.

50 Are you positive??? Red cells also may contain Rh factor If you have it, youre Rh + If you dont, youre Rh – Another blood typing system, discovered in 1939, is called the Rh blood group. The Rh comes from Rhesus monkeys on which the tests were first run. About 85% of our population is positive for the Rh factor, and the remainder is Rh- negative. RHO gam given to RH neg. mothers

51 BBLOOD TYPE REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.Mrs. Paynes blood type is O positive. Her husbands type is O negative. Her newborn babys blood type is O negative. Is there any need for concern with this combination? 2. You hear that your friend has been in a car accident and needs a blood transfusion; you want to donate blood. Your friend has type O+ blood and you have A+ blood. Can yourblood be given to your friend? Explain the reason for your answer. 3.Ms. Pratt is claiming the Mr. X is the father of her child. Ms. Pratts blood type is O negative. Her baby boy has type A positive blood. Mr. Xs blood is typed and found to be B positive. Could he be the father of her child? _______ If not, what blood type would the father be expected to have? 4.A patient comes to the doctors office. She is pregnant andstates she is Rh negative and her husband is Rh positive. She has heard that there may be a problem with the baby. Explain to her about the Rh factor and how this situation is taken care of today. Bottom 1?2 The Blood

52 BLOOD TYPING STUDY GUIDE 1.Define antigen. 2.Define antibody. ABO Blood System 1.Name and differentiate the four main blood types. 2.Describe the reaction that occurs when the body is exposed to antigens that are not in their blood. 3.What two reactions will occur if a person receives atransfusion of blood with antigens that do not match. 4.What test must be done before anyone can receive a transfusion? 5.Define donor and recipient. 6.What are universal donors? 7.How did the Rh factor get its name? 8.Describe the reactions that occurs when an Rh negative person receives Rh negative blood. 9.How can the Rh factor be dangerous in pregnancies. Complete Bottom ½ The Blood

53 Bell/Pay Day You have approximately 10 index cards… Write the name of the disorder (see your outline) on one side & description on the other Complete L & M in workbook, page 157 When you have done all….see me for a copy of the test to study!

54 Cord Blood Umbilical cord blood from a newborn is important in research because…. Cord blood has immunity producing stem cells, is easy to transplant and does on cause rejection

55 DISORDERS OF THE BLOOD ANEMIA Deficiency in number or % of red cells IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Usually in women, children and adolescents Deficiency of iron in the diet causing insufficient hemoglobin synthesis Treat with iron supplements and green, leafy vegetables APLASTIC ANEMIA Bone marrow does not produce enough red and white blood cells Caused by drugs or radiation therapy

56 SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Chronic blood disease inherited from both parents Causes the red cells to form in abnormal sickle shape Sickle cells break easily and carry less oxygen Occurs primarily in blacks Treatment – blood transfusions

57 DISORDERS OF THE BLOOD POLYCYTHEMIA Too many red blood cells are formed May be a temporary condition that occurs at high altitude EMBOLISM Air, blood clot, cancer cells, fat, etc. that is carried by the bloodstream until it reaches an artery too small for passage Also known as a moving blood clot THROMBOSIS The formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel The blood clot is a THROMBUS HEMATOMA Localized clotted mass of blood found in an organ, tissue or space. Caused by an injury that can cause a blood vessel to rupture

58 DISORDERS OF THE BLOOD HEMOPHILIA Hereditary Missing clotting factor Blood clots slow or abnormally Sex-linked – transmitted genetically from mothers to sons Treat with missing clotting factor, avoid trauma THROMBOCYTOPENIA Not enough platelets Blood will not clot properly LEUKEMIA Malignant condition Overproduction of immature white blood cells Hinders synthesis of red cells 5.shtml?source=vanityurl/

59 Create Questions to play Jeopardy Jepardy Groups 1) Anemia-Sink side 2) Embolisms-Podium Row 3) Hemophilia-Middle tables 4) Leukemia-Clock row 5) Thrombocytopenia-computer row Create 5 questions from your topic. One side write topic other side write question AND ANSWER! On the end rank question by difficulty:

60 bell Workbook 157 L

61 Human Biology Practice Quiz #6 Fill in the blank. As always, I strongly recommend that you actually practice taking this quiz by writing your answers down, then check them when you are finished. 1. Of the four primary types of tissue, blood is classified as a connective tissue. 2. Plasma is more than 90% water. 3. Erythrocytes are produced in the red bone marrow. 4. Hemoglobin is called a respiratory pigment because it carries oxygen and is red. 5. An insufficient oxygen carrying capacity due to either a decreased level of hemoglobin or a decreased number number of red blood cells is called anemia 6. The most abundant white blood cell that is the body's first response to infection is called a/an neutrophil. 7. A basophil is a granular leukocyte that stains dark blue and is involved in the histamine release associated with allergic reactions. 8.Platelets are cell fragments that function in coagulation. 9. The enzyme that activates fibrin during clotting is called thrombin. 10. Albumin is a plasma protein that carries bilirubin. 11. Capillary exchange at the arterial end is driven by blood pressure. 12. Capillary exchange at the venous end is driven by osmosis. 13. A foreign substance that stimulates the immune system to react is called a/an antigen. 14. In the ABO blood typing system, the universal blood donor is type O. 15. The color of deoxyhemoglobin is dark blue/purple. 16. Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the kidneys in response to decreased arterial oxygen levels. Short Answer. 16. Name 3 functions of blood. 1. Transport - nutrients, wastes, hormones 2. Protection - fluid loss & disease 3. Regulation - fluid, ion, and pH balance & heat distribution 17. If a person suffers from carbon monoxide poisoning, why is removing the person from the source of carbon monoxide not sufficient to revive them? Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin 200X more tightly than oxygen, and will remain bound for many hours which renders those red blood cells useless in carrying oxygen. 18. Name 4 general differences between erythrocytes and leukocytes. 1. Mature erythrocytes do not have a nucleus, leukocytes do. 2. Erythrocytes have hemoglobin, leukocytes do not. 3. Leukocytes are much bigger than erythrocytes. 4. Erythrocytes are normally confined to the blood vessels, leukocytes are highly mobile and move out into the tissues. 19. Name the two types of lymphocytes and their functions. 1. B lymphocytes - produce antibodies 2. T lymphocytes - directly destroy antigens 20. Name three types of plasma proteins and their functions. 1. Albumin - carries bilirubin 2. Lipoproteins - carry cholesterol 3. Globulins - fight infection 21. What is the function of lymphatic capillaries? To collect excess tissue fluid remaining after capillary exchange and return it to the circulatory system - helps maintain normal blood volume and blood pressure. 22. In the ABO blood-typing system, what blood type is considered the universal recipient? Why? Type AB, because an individual with type AB blood would not have antibodies to either A or B antigens as it carries both types of antigens. Therefore, none of the other blood types would be recognized as foreign. 23. Name two organs that remove aged red blood cells from circulation. What happens to the hemoglobin in these cells? Liver and spleen. Hemoglobin is broken down into heme and globin. Globin is further broken down into its component amino acids, which are recycled by the body. Heme is broken down and excreted as the bile pigments, bilirubin and biliverdin. (The Billy Brothers!) Extra Credit: If an Rh negative mother is pregnant with an Rh positive baby, how can hemolytic disease of the baby be prevented? If an Rh positive mother is pregnant with an Rh negative baby, how can hemolytic disease be prevented? To Be Continued

62 Bell Answer review questions on page 255/256(new) 235/236(OLD)

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