Presentation on theme: "Unit G: Hematology Explain the structure of the blood."— Presentation transcript:
1Unit G: Hematology Explain the structure of the blood. Analyze the function of the blood.Discuss characteristics and treatments of common blood disorders
2AssignmentFind in your packet the page titled Blood Anticipation Guide. Read the instructions carefully! Complete.
3Bell/Payday! List the functions of the Blood! Goals: Explain structures of the bloodAnalyze the functions of the bloodDiscuss characteristics and treatment of common blood disorders
4Hematology Average adult = 8-10 pints of blood Functions: Transports nutrients, oxygen, cellular waste products, and hormonesAids in distribution of heatRegulates acid-base balanceHelps protect against infection
5Ha! Ha!Why did the blonde nurse take a red magic marker to work? So she could draw blood! I just had to tell you that one I heard the other day. Funny, even if I am blonde( sometimes)!!
6Composition:PLASMA – liquid portion of blood without cellular componentsSerum – plasma after a blood clot is formedCellular elements arered cells, white cells, and platelets
7PLASMA Straw colored, contains – Water Blood proteins Plasma proteins: FIBRONOGEN – necessary for blood clotting, synthesized in the liverALBUMIN – from the liver, helps maintain blood’s osmotic pressure and volumePROTHROMBIN – a globulin which helps blood coagulate. Vitamin K necessary for prothrombin synthesis.NutrientsElectrolytesHormones, vitamins, enzymes
9Bell Complete the 2nd ½ of Blood anticipation guide List all functions of blood…when you finish come show me your work!
10Read page 243The first person to write down and show me ( in medical/scientific terms) what do smarties and RBC’s have in common wins a prize!
11Bell What % of blood is Plasma? What % of blood is formed ? What is in formed?
12ERYTHROCYTES Shape = biconcave discs HEMOGLOBIN – gives red color, heme is iron and globin is protein.Function = transports oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from cellsNormal – men =14-18 gm, women = gm
13Function of Hemoglobin Red cells travel through the lungs whereO2 is carried to tissues and releasedCO2 picked up and carried back to lungs for exchange
14Arterial blood – lots of oxygen = bright red Oxyhemiglobin-bright red color
15Venous blood – lots of CO2 = dark crimson Carbiminohemiglobin-crimson blue
16What is carbon monoxide poisoning? Hemoglobin readily accepts carbon monoxide - even over the life giving oxygen atoms (as much as 200 times as readily as oxygen) forming a toxic compound known as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). By replacing oxygen with carbon monoxide in our blood, our bodies poison themselves by cutting off the needed oxygen to our organs and cells, causing various amounts of damage - depending on exposure.
17red blood cells……….. ERYTHROPOIESIS Red cells live 120 days Manufacture of red blood cellsOccurs in bone marrowRed cells live 120 daysOld cells broken down by the spleen and liverHEMOLYSIS – rupture or bursting of erythrocyte, can be from a blood transfusion or disease.Page 148 workbook A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
18BellComplete “b” from page …”I Am the Red Blood Cell” This has been copied and is in your packets!
21White Blood Cells – LEUKOCYTES Leukocytes-Defends body from injury and diseaseLarger than erythrocytes5 typesNormal leukocyte count = 3,200 – 9,800Types of White CellsNeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophilsLymphocytesMonocytes
22Leukocytes are divided into two classes: Granulocytes - grainulesAgrainulocytes without grainulesClassification is due to the presence of cytoplasmic grainules & a reaction of a Wright Stain
231/2/4 discussion…45 second time limit GranulocytesAgrainulocytesNeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophilsLymphocytesMonocytes
24Granulocytes Neutraphils-Immune defense (phagocytosos - Granulocytes make up 50% to 60% of all leukocytes. Granulocytes are themselves divided into three classes: neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.Granulocytes get their name because they contain 30% to 40% of all leukocytes. Lymphocytes come in two classes: B cells (those that mature in bone marrow) and T cells (those that mature in the thymus).Neutraphils-Immune defense (phagocytososEosinophils- Defense against parasitesBasophils- Inflamatory response. Histamine. Produce HEPARIN – an anticoagulant
25Agranulocytes 2 divisions Monocyte – Formed in the bone marrow and spleen, Monocytes protect against blood-borne pathogens. Assist in phagocytosis. Move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues.Lymphocyte - Lymphocytes make up up 7% or so of all leukocytes. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human body's immune system.T-lymphocyte from thymusB-lymphocyte formed in bone marrow.
26Classes of Blood Cells B-lymphocytes-Antibody production Erythrocytes-Oxygen and carbon Dioxide trandsportNeutraphils-Immune defense (phagocytosos)Eosinophils- Defense against parasitesBasophils- Inflamatory response. Histamine. Produce HEPARIN – an anticoagulantB-lymphocytes-Antibody productionT- lymphocytes Cellular Immune responseMonocytes-Immune defense (phagocytosos)Platelets-Blood clotting
28PHAGOCYTOSIS– process when white cells surround, engulf, and digest harmful bacteria. .All leukocytes except Lymphocytes can…..
29DIAPEDESIS– when white cells LEUKOCYTES move through capillary wall into neighboring tissue.
30Leukocytes are divided into two classes: Granulocytes - grainules (Megablasts)-origin Red Bone MarrowNeutraphils-Immune defense (phagocytosos)Eosinophils- Defense against parasites, increase with alergic reactions .(phagocytosos)Basophils- Inflamatory response. Histamine. Produce HEPARIN – an anticoagulantAgranulocytes 2 divisions1) Monocyte – Formed in the bone marrow and spleen, Monocytes protect against blood-borne pathogens. Assist in phagocytosis. Move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues.2) Lymphocyte - Lymphocytes make up up 7% or so of all leukocytes. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human body's immune system.T-lymphocyte from thymusB-lymphocyte formed in bone marrow.
31INFLAMMATION Body’s reaction to chemical or physical trauma PATHOGENIC – disease producing microorganisms can cause inflammationSymptoms – redness, local heat, swelling and painWhy? Bacterial toxins, increased blood flow, collection of plasma in tissues (edema)HISTAMINE increases the blood flow to the injured area
32Why do we need LEUKOCYTES?? Define @ top of 3rd pg of outline PUS produced – a combination of dead tissue, dead and living bacteria, dead leukocytes and plasmaABSCESS – pus-filled cavity below the epidermisPYREXIA – increase in body temperature by the hypothalamus – in response to pathogenic invasionLEUKOCYTOSIS – increase in the number of white cells in response to infectionLEUKOPENIA – decrease in number of white cells due to chemotherapy or radiationWorkbook page E,F,G(ck pkt)Worksheet Top ½ “The Blood”
33Bell/payday If you missed any portion of class yesterday, see me! Complete…..Workbook G page 156-already copied in pkt!
37THROMBOCYTES (Platelets) Smallest of solid components of bloodSynthesized in red marrowNot cells – fragments of megakaryocytesNecessary for the initiation of the blood clotting process250,000 to 450,000 per ml.
38COAGULATIONCut or injury platelets and injured tissue release THROMBOPLASTIN act on PROTHROMBIN in plasma + Calcium ions converts to THROMBIN the thrombin acts as an enzyme and changes FIBRINOGEN FIBRIN creating a mesh that traps red blood cells, platelets and plasma creating a blood clot.See Transparency
39Clotting…. ANTICOAGULANTS – prevent blood clotting HEPARIN = antiprothrombinPROTHROMBIN – dependent on Vitamin KW/B H (already in Pkt)Word bank pg 154
40Complete (worksheet) Functions of Blood Cells Quick review…Plasma-Straw colored, contains: Water, Blood proteinsErythrocytes-Function = transports oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from cellsLeukocytes-Defends body from injury and diseasePlatelets- initiation of the blood clotting process
42Are you my type? Four major types of blood- A, B, AB and O Inherited from parentsDetermined by presence or absence of an ANTIGEN on the surface of the red blood cell Example-Type A blood has antigen AType O has neither Antigen A or B
43BLOOD TYPESANTIBODY – a protein in the plasma that will inactivate a foreign substance that enters the body.Someone with type A blood has b antibodiesSomeone with type B blood has a antibodiesSomeone with type AB blood has no antibodiesSomeone with type O blood has a and b antibodiesUNIVERSAL DONOR – OUNIVERSAL RECIPIENT – ABSee poster
45Leave the fifth cup empty Step 6: Rinse the Patient cup. Add liquid from Group Bto the Patient cup.Step 7: Repeat step 5 using “blood” from the Group B cup.Step 8: Repeat step 6Step 9: Repeat step 5 using “blood” from the Group AB cup.Step 10: Repeat step 6Step 11: Repeat step 5 using liquid from the Group O cupStep 12: Which “blood” groups can safely give blood tothe patient who had Group B blood?Key..next slideAs Long as liquid does NOT change color=safe!Step 1: Label paper cups with Group A,Group B, Group AB, Group O. LabelThe empty cup patient.Step 2:: Fill four cups about 2/3 full with water.Leave the fifth cup emptyStep 3: Add red color to cup A, blue to cup B,and equal amounts of red and blue to cup AB;do not add food coloring to cup OStep 4: Pour a small amount of liquid from cup B intoPatient cup. Patient now has that type of blood.Step 5: Using a medicine dropper, transfer “blood” fromGroup A to Patient cup. Did the color change inpatient cup? Record your findings as either safeor unsafe.
46As long as the liquid in the patient cup does not change color the transfussion is safe!
48Erythroblastosis fetalis Determining a person's blood type is very important if she becomes pregnant. Blood cells from the unborn baby (fetal red blood cells) can cross over into the mother's bloodstream, especially at delivery. If the mother and her baby have compatible blood types, the crossover does not present any danger. However, if the blood types are incompatible, the mother's immune system manufactures antibodies against the baby's blood. Usually, this incompatibility is not a factor in a first pregnancy, because few fetal blood cells reach the mother's bloodstream until delivery. The antibodies that form after delivery cannot affect the first child. In later pregnancies, fetuses and babies may be in grave danger. The danger arises from the possibility that the mother's antibodies will attack the fetal red blood cells. If this happens, the fetus or baby can suffer severe health effects and may die.
49Are you positive??? Red cells also may contain Rh factor If you have it, you’re Rh +If you don’t, you’re Rh –Another blood typing system, discovered in 1939, is called the Rh blood group. The Rh comes from Rhesus monkeys on which the tests were first run. About 85% of our population is positive for the Rh factor, and the remainder is Rh-negative.RHO gam given to RH neg . mothers
50BBLOOD TYPE REVIEW QUESTIONS BBLOOD TYPE REVIEW QUESTIONS1. Mrs. Payne’s blood type is O positive. Her husband’s type is O negative. Her newborn baby’s blood type is O negative. Is there any need for concern with this combination?2. You hear that your friend has been in a car accident and needs a blood transfusion; you want to donate blood. Your friend has type O+ blood and you have A+ blood. Can yourblood be given to your friend? Explain the reason for your answer.3. Ms. Pratt is claiming the Mr. X is the father of her child. Ms. Pratt’s blood type is O negative. Her baby boy has type A positive blood. Mr. X’s blood is typed and found to be B positive. Could he be the father of her child? _______ If not, what blood type would the father be expected to have? 4. A patient comes to the doctor’s office. She is pregnant and states she is Rh negative and her husband is Rh positive. She has heard that there may be a problem with the baby. Explain to her about the Rh factor and how this situation is taken care of today.Bottom 1?2 “The Blood”
51BLOOD TYPING STUDY GUIDE 1. Define antigen.2. Define antibody.ABO Blood System 1. Name and differentiate the four main blood types.2. Describe the reaction that occurs when the body is exposed to antigens that are not in their blood.3. What two reactions will occur if a person receives a transfusion of blood with antigens that do not match.4. What test must be done before anyone can receive a transfusion? 5. Define donor and recipient. 6. What are universal donors? 7. How did the Rh factor get its name? 8. Describe the reactions that occurs when an Rh negative person receives Rh negative blood. 9. How can the Rh factor be dangerous in pregnancies.Complete Bottom ½ The Blood”
52Bell/Pay Day You have approximately 10 index cards… Write the name of the disorder (see your outline) on one side & description on the otherComplete L & M in workbook, page 157When you have done all….see me for a copy of the test to study!
53Cord BloodUmbilical cord blood from a newborn is important in research because….Cord blood has immunity producing stem cells, is easy to transplant and does on cause rejection
54DISORDERS OF THE BLOOD ANEMIA Deficiency in number or % of red cells IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIAUsually in women, children and adolescentsDeficiency of iron in the diet causing insufficient hemoglobin synthesisTreat with iron supplements and green, leafy vegetablesAPLASTIC ANEMIABone marrow does not produce enough red and white blood cellsCaused by drugs or radiation therapy
55SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Chronic blood disease inherited from both parents Causes the red cells to form in abnormal sickle shapeSickle cells break easily and carry less oxygenOccurs primarily in blacksTreatment – blood transfusions
56DISORDERS OF THE BLOOD POLYCYTHEMIA Too many red blood cells are formedMay be a temporary condition that occurs at high altitudeEMBOLISMAir, blood clot, cancer cells, fat, etc. that is carried by the bloodstream until it reaches an artery too small for passageAlso known as a “moving blood clot”THROMBOSISThe formation of a blood clot in a blood vesselThe blood clot is a THROMBUSHEMATOMALocalized clotted mass of blood found in an organ, tissue or space.Caused by an injury that can cause a blood vessel to rupture
57DISORDERS OF THE BLOODHEMOPHILIAHereditaryMissing clotting factorBlood clots slow or abnormallySex-linked – transmitted genetically from mothers to sonsTreat with missing clotting factor, avoid traumaTHROMBOCYTOPENIANot enough plateletsBlood will not clot properlyLEUKEMIAMalignant conditionOverproduction of immature white blood cellsHinders synthesis of red cells
58Create Questions to play Jeopardy Jepardy Groups 1) Anemia-Sink side 2) Embolisms-Podium Row 3) Hemophilia-Middle tables 4) Leukemia-Clock row 5) Thrombocytopenia-computer row Create 5 questions from your topic. One side write topic other side write question AND ANSWER! On the end rank question by difficulty:
60Human Biology Practice Quiz #6 Fill in the blank. As always, I strongly recommend that you actually practice taking this quiz by writing your answers down, then check them when you are finished.1. Of the four primary types of tissue, blood is classified as a connective tissue.2. Plasma is more than 90% water.3. Erythrocytes are produced in the red bone marrow.4. Hemoglobin is called a respiratory pigment because it carries oxygen and is red.5. An insufficient oxygen carrying capacity due to either a decreased level of hemoglobin or a decreased number number of red blood cells is called anemia6. The most abundant white blood cell that is the body's first response to infection is called a/an neutrophil.7. A basophil is a granular leukocyte that stains dark blue and is involved in the histamine release associated with allergic reactions.8.Platelets are cell fragments that function in coagulation.9. The enzyme that activates fibrin during clotting is called thrombin.10. Albumin is a plasma protein that carries bilirubin.11. Capillary exchange at the arterial end is driven by blood pressure.12. Capillary exchange at the venous end is driven by osmosis.13. A foreign substance that stimulates the immune system to react is called a/an antigen.14. In the ABO blood typing system, the universal blood donor is type O.15. The color of deoxyhemoglobin is dark blue/purple.16. Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the kidneys in response to decreased arterial oxygen levels.Short Answer.16. Name 3 functions of blood. 1. Transport - nutrients, wastes, hormones 2. Protection - fluid loss & disease 3. Regulation - fluid, ion, and pH balance & heat distribution17. If a person suffers from carbon monoxide poisoning, why is removing the person from the source of carbon monoxide not sufficient to revive them? Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin 200X more tightly than oxygen, and will remain bound for many hours which renders those red blood cells useless in carrying oxygen.18. Name 4 general differences between erythrocytes and leukocytes. 1. Mature erythrocytes do not have a nucleus, leukocytes do. 2. Erythrocytes have hemoglobin, leukocytes do not. 3. Leukocytes are much bigger than erythrocytes. 4. Erythrocytes are normally confined to the blood vessels, leukocytes are highly mobile and move out into the tissues.19. Name the two types of lymphocytes and their functions. 1. B lymphocytes - produce antibodies 2. T lymphocytes - directly destroy antigens20. Name three types of plasma proteins and their functions. 1. Albumin - carries bilirubin 2. Lipoproteins - carry cholesterol 3. Globulins - fight infection21. What is the function of lymphatic capillaries? To collect excess tissue fluid remaining after capillary exchange and return it to the circulatory system - helps maintain normal blood volume and blood pressure.22. In the ABO blood-typing system, what blood type is considered the universal recipient? Why? Type AB, because an individual with type AB blood would not have antibodies to either A or B antigens as it carries both types of antigens. Therefore, none of the other blood types would be recognized as foreign.23. Name two organs that remove aged red blood cells from circulation. What happens to the hemoglobin in these cells? Liver and spleen. Hemoglobin is broken down into heme and globin. Globin is further broken down into its component amino acids, which are recycled by the body. Heme is broken down and excreted as the bile pigments, bilirubin and biliverdin. (The Billy Brothers!)Extra Credit: If an Rh negative mother is pregnant with an Rh positive baby, how can hemolytic disease of the baby be prevented?If an Rh positive mother is pregnant with an Rh negative baby, how can hemolytic disease be prevented?To Be Continued
61BellAnswer review questions on page 255/256(new) 235/236(OLD)