2 Warm Up Questions What is a confederation? What is a republic? Why is the United States a republic?What kind of governments did the new states create for themselves?What was the new geographical boundary for America, after the Treaty of Paris? Why is this important?
3 Moving WestAmerican’s started moving west, past the Appalachian mountainsTheir land extended to the Mississippi RiverWhat problems did they face?Native AmericansThis was their landTensions arose and led to violent confrontationsAs Americans were moving west, the people in the east created new state governments
8 New State GovernmentsWhen the colonies declared independence they became free and independent statesEach state created its own governmentThey wanted to make more democratic gov’tsSome states created separate branchesDivided the power among different branchesThe hope was to prevent the gov’t from becoming too powerfulALL states had a republican form of gov’tRepublic: people choose representatives to govern them
9 New National Gov’t United we stand, divided we fall During the revolution, Congress developed a plan for a national governmentThe delegates disagreed on votesShould each state have 1 vote orShould votes be based on populationThey disagreed on who should control the lands west of the Appalachian’sIndividual states or national government
10 New National Gov’t cont… John Dickinson proposed an idea after the Revolutionary War endedHe called for:strong central government, with control over the western landsequal representation for the statesthe power to levy taxes.Why would people have problems with this?After their experience with Britain, they feared a strong, centralized gov’t
12 Articles of Confederation Congress drastically changed Dickinson’s proposalGave states as much independence as possibleThe Articles established a confederation of sovereign states and limited the power of the federal gov’tThis was proposed to all states in November of 1777.Why the delay in accepting it?RevolutionDisagreements among the states
13 Articles cont… Disagreements boundary linesconflicting decisions by state courtsdiffering tariff (tax) lawstrade restrictions between statesSmall states wanted equal representation with larger statesLarger states were afraid of paying huge taxes to the federal governmentDisagreed over control of the Western territoriesStates with no frontier border wanted the gov’t to control the landStates who bordered wanted control of the landEventually agreed to give control to the gov’t
15 Articles cont… But…. Ratified on March 1, 1781 7 months before the surrender of YorktownCongress had the power to:regulate foreign affairsdeclare warRun the postal serviceappoint military officerscontrol Native American issuesborrow moneydetermine the value of coinissue bills of credit.But….
16 Articles cont… Most important powers went to the states: Set taxes Enforce national lawsControlled lands West of the Appalachian’sCongress had no power to ask states for troops or money
19 Government Under the Articles Unicameral Legislature One vote per state 2/3 majority needed to pass legislation Unanimous vote needed to amend Articles
20 Weaknesses of the Articles No national executiveNo national court systemNational government could not collect taxesNational government could not raise an armyNational government could not regulate trade
21 Problems under the Articles Currency Problems: Many states printed their own money. The national currency, meanwhile, became almost worthlessIntrastate Commerce: States placed tariffs on each other's goods. This, combined with currency problems, led to a sharp decline in intrastate commerce
22 Problems cont…Foreign Trade: Other countries placed tariffs and trade restrictions on US goods; the US was not able to reciprocate. The absence of a strong navy also left US merchant ships vulnerable to pirates.Foreign Affairs: The inability of the national government to raise an army left the US vulnerable. For example, key provisions of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Revolutionary War, were not enforced. As a result, the British continued to occupy forts in the Northwest territory -- landed that had technically been ceded to the US.