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Characterizing exoplanets’ atmospheres and surfaces

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Presentation on theme: "Characterizing exoplanets’ atmospheres and surfaces"— Presentation transcript:

1 Characterizing exoplanets’ atmospheres and surfaces
Thérèse Encrenaz LESIA, Observatoire de Paris Pathways Toward Habitable Planets Barcelona, September 2009

2 Outline The planetary zoo Rocky Exoplanets (warm)
Spectral variations with spectral type, RH, abundances Atmosphere: constraints on resolving power Surface: mineralogy, Red Vegetation Edge Icy Exoplanets (cold) Atmosphere: constraint on R Surface: ices Giant Exoplanets (from hot to very cold) Atmosphere: importance of thermal profile, constraint on R Conclusions

3 Spectroscopy of an exoplanet
Reflected starlight component (UV, visible, near-IR) Albedo is about 0.3 for most of solar-system planets Absorption lines or bands in front of stellar blackbody Thermal component (IR, submm & mm) Mostly depends upon the temperature of the emitting region Emission lines in the stratosphere, absorption lines in the troposphere (function of T(P)) Fluorescence emission (UV, visible, near-IR) Emission lines in the upper atmospheres (H, H2, N2, radicals) The IR range is best suited for probing exoplanets’ neutral atmospheres

4 The Solar System: A planetary zoo
Planets with an atmosphere Rocky planets (warm) Mars-type (CO2, N2 + H2O) No stratosphere Earth-type (N2, O2 + H2O) Stratosphere (O3)   Icy planets (cold) Titan-type (N2, CH4 + CO) Stratosphere (hydrocarbons, nitriles) Giant planets (cold to very cold) Jupiter-type (H2, CH4, NH3 +H2O) Stratosphere (hydrocarbons) Neptune-type (H2, CH4) «  Bare planets Mercury/asteroid-type (refractories) TNO-type (ices)

5 What kind of exoplanet can we expect? [F*/D2](1-a) = 4  Te4
Te (K) Stellar distance (AU) (solar-type star) Small Exoplanet < ROCKY PLANETS > <ICY PLANETS > (WARM) (COLD) ( ME) No atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere (Mercury-type) N2, CO2, CO, H2 N2, CH4(+CO) (Mars-Venus type) hydrocarbons, nitriles if O2 -> O3 (Earth-type) (Titan-type) STRATOSPHERE STRATOSPHERE Giant Exoplanet <PEGASIDES>< GASEOUS GIANTS > <ICY GIANTS> (HOT) (WARM) (COLD) ( ME) Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere H2,CO,N2,H2O H2,CH4,NH3,H2O H2,CH4 hydrocarbons hydrocarbons (Jupiter-type) (Neptune-type) STRATOSPHERE STRATOSPHERE

6 Variations of asterocentric distances with the stellar type
Te (K) Stellar type A (T=10000 K) F (T=7000 K) G (T=5700 K) K (T=4200 K) M (T=3200 K) HZ

7 However, this is not so simple! Why?
Other parameters are involved: Albedo -> effect on Te Rotation period -> effect on Te Phase-locked planets -> strong day/night contrasts Possible greenhouse effect -> may increase Ts vs Te Earth: 15 K; Venus: over 200 K Obliquity Atmospheric dynamics -> may change day/night contrasts Magnetic field -> may prevent atmospheric escape Migration is possible!

8 Rocky Planets The IR spectrum of Mars (ISO-SWS) Ps = 6 mb
CO2 CO2 H2O CO Hydrated silicates CO2 CO2 Spectral signatures: CO2, H2O, CO (+ traces H2O2, CH4) Lellouch et al., 2000

9 Variation of a Mars-type spectrum as a function
of the stellar type (D = 1 UA) Te (K) 476 346 273 174 Stellar Type A (10000 K) F (7000 K) G (5700 K) K (4200 K)

10 Variation of a Mars-type spectrum as a function
of the asterocentric distance D (solar-type star) D = 0.07, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 UA Te = 1000, 863, 496, 273 K NB: For small D, the reflected component dominates -> Atmospheric signatures mostly in absorption

11 Variation with atmospheric composition:
H2O-dominated (Earth-like) spectrum (above clouds) H2O H2O H2O ice CO2 H2O CO2 Pcl = 10 mb

12 The infrared spectrum of the Earth as seen
by the NIMS instrument aboard Galileo (Earth flyby, December 1990) Drossart et al., 1993

13 The thermal spectrum of telluric planets
Venus Earth Mars Hanel et al., 1992

14 Thermal spectra of rocky planets
Earth R=70,10,5 Earth Mars Venus Resolving power required : CO2 = 3 mm R = 3 O3  = 1 mm R = 10 CH4  = 0.15mm R = 50

15 Solid signatures in rocky planets
Reflected spectrum: H2O ice 1.25, 1.5, 2.0 m Silicates 1.0, 2.0 m (broad) Ferric oxides 1.0 m Carbonates 2.35, 2.5 m Hydrated silicates mm (broad) Thermal spectrum: Mid-latitudes Tsurf > Tatm silicates Polar cap Tsurf < Tatm H2O ice Silicates: cm-1(broad) Water ice: cm-1 (broad) Hanel et al., 1992

16 The Red Vegetation Edge (Earth spectrum)
Seager et al. 2005

17 RVE : Earthshine observations
Problems: -partial coverage of the vegetation -clouds (20-30% of the disk) Seager et al. 2005

18 The reflected spectrum of a CH4-dominated planet (icy or giant)
Larson, 1980

19 The atmosphere of an icy planet:
The thermal component Titan - SWS: CH4, hydrocarbons, nitriles C2H6 HCN, C2H2 CH4 Resolving power required: R > 5 ( C2H2-C2H6) ; R > 10 (CH4)

20 Solid signatures on icy planets
H2O ice H2O, CH4, CO, N2 (Ganymede) (Pluto)

21 The atmosphere of two gaseous giants: The thermal component
Jupiter & Saturn - ISO-SWS Jupiter Saturn CH3D, PH NH3 C2H6 PH3 CH4 NB: Jupiter and Saturn are VERY different!

22 Jupiter -SWS The 6-12-mm range: CH4, CH3D, C2H6, NH3, PH3
Resolving power required: - for NH3 detection: R > 100 - for CH4 detection: R > 150 -for C2H6 detection: R > 20

23 The atmosphere of an icy giant
Neptune - SWS The 2-18-m range: CH4, CH3D, C2H2, C2H6 CH C2H C2H2 Resolving power required: R > 5 ( C2H2-C2H6) ; R > 10 (CH4)

24 In summary… The diversity in solar-system bodies opens the same possibilities for exoplanets A resolving power higher than 10 is required for the identification of major gaseous and solid signatures In the thermal range, hydrocarbons (C2H2, C2H6) are easier to detect than methane Knowing the thermal structure is essential for interpreting thermal spectra No stratosphere expected for Rocky Exoplanets (N2, CO2, H2O) except if O2 is present A stratosphere is expected for Icy Exoplanets (N2, CH4) and Giant Exoplanets (H2, CH4,…)

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