2 Do You Remember? How was Germany punished in the Treaty of Versailles? harshlyWhat were some of the conditions laid out for Germany?Reduction in army, pay $33 billion in reparations, lost land, etc
3 Many democracies, including the United States, Britain, and France, remained strong despite the economic crisis caused by the Great Depression.However, millions of people lost faith in democratic government.In response, they turned to an extreme system of government called fascism.
4 Fascist Beliefs and Policies Emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to the leader.Fascists promised to revive the economy, punish those responsible for hard times, and restore national pride.Their message attracted those who were frustrated and angered by the peace treaties that followed WWI and by the Great Depression.
5 Ideas Extreme form of nationalism, or loyalty to one’s country Fascists believed that nations must struggle – peaceful states were doomed to be conquered.They pledged loyalty to an authoritarian leader who guided the state.They wore uniforms of a certain color, used special salutes, and held mass rallies.
6 Fascism and Communism similarities Both systems ruled by dictators who only allow their political party to rule.Both denied individual rights.The state was supreme.
7 Fascism and Communism differences Fascists did not seek a classless society, like Communists.Fascists believed that each class had its place and function.Communism claimed to be a dictatorship of the working class.In most cases, fascist parties were made up of aristocrats and industrialists, war veterans, and the lower middle class.Fascists were nationalists and Communists were internationalists, hoping to unite workers worldwide.
8 Unrest in ItalyItaly was bitter over the failure to win large territorial gains at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.Rising inflation and unemployment spread social unrest.Italy’s upper and middle classes feared a Communist revolution, like in Russia.The Italians distrusted their weak, democratic government.They wanted a new leader to take action.
9 Benito Mussolini A newspaper editor and politician Promised to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces.He vowed to give Italy strong leadership.Mussolini founded the fascist Party in 1919.
15 IL DUCE Mussolini became IL Duce, or the leader. He abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except for the fascists.The Secret police jailed his opponents.Government censors forced radio stations and publications to broadcast only Fascist doctrine.Outlawed strikes.Despite all this, Mussolini never had total control like Stalin and Hitler.
23 Nazis At the end of WWI, Hitler settled in Munich, Germany. He joined a political group that wanted to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism.The group later became the Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party, or Nazi party.
24 Der Fuhrer The party adopted the swastika as its symbol. The Nazis also set up private militia called the storm troopers or brown shirts.Hitler was soon appointed ‘der Fuhrer’ (the leader) of the Nazi party.
26 Jail Hitler and the Nazis plotted to seize power in Munich in 1923. Hitler was caught and arrested.He spent 9 months in jail.
27 Mein Kampf While he was in prison, he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Hitler asserted that the Germans – blonde and blue eyed – whom he called ‘Aryans’ – were the ‘Master Race’.He declared that non-Aryan races (Jews, Slavs, and Gypsies) were inferior or subhuman.
29 Versailles do to Germany? What did the Treaty ofVersailles do to Germany?LebensraumHe called the Versailles Treaty an outrageVowed to regain lands taken away from GermanyDeclared that Germany was overcrowded and needed more lebensraum, or living space.He promised to get space by conquering eastern Europe and Russia.
30 LeadershipMost people ignored Hitler and his angry message until the Great Depression hit.When the American loans stopped, the German economy collapsed.Factories and banks closed down.6 million people, 30% of German’s workforce, were unemployed.Germans turned to Hitler looking for a strong leader.
31 Hitler rises to PowerThe Nazis had become the largest political party by 1932.Hitler was appointed Chancellor.The Nazi party eventually gained control.Hitler demanded dictatorial powers.He used his power to turn Germany into a totalitarian state.
32 Terror Banned all other political parties Arrested opponents SS (Schutzstaffel) was created. It was a protection squad and was loyal to Hitler.The SS arrested and murdered hundreds of Hitler’s enemies.The SS and the Gestapo (Nazi Secret Police) scared Germans into total obedience.
33 Nazi party controls economy New laws banned strikesDissolved independent labor unionsGave government authority over business and labor.Hitler put millions of Germans to work.They constructed factories, built highways, manufactured weapons, and served in the military.Unemployment dropped from 6 million to 1.5 million.
34 Propaganda Hitler burned books that did not conform to Nazi ideas. Used press, radio, literature, painting, and film to spread Nazi ideals.Churches were forbidden to criticize the Nazis or the government.Schoolchildren joined ‘Hitler Youth’ or the ‘League of German Girls’
37 Social DarwinismHitler believed that a continuous struggle brought victory to the strong.He believed in the idea of ‘survival of the fittest’.He believed the fittest to be the ‘Aryan’ race.
38 Jews Anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews) was a key part of Nazi ideology. The Nazis blamed all Jews for Germany’s problems.Beginning in 1933, Germany passed laws depriving Jews of most of their rights.Violence against Jews increased tremendously.
40 “The Jewish nose is bent. It looks like the number six...”*
41 Just as it is often hard to tell a toadstool from an edible mushroom, so too it is often very hard to recognize the Jew as a swindler and criminal...”
42 “Just look at these guys. The louse-infested beards “Just look at these guys! The louse-infested beards! The filthy, protruding ears...”*
43 1936 OlympicsThe 1936 Summer Olympics were held in Berlin, Nazi Germany’s capital.Hitler built a new $30 million stadium.To hide Jewish persecution from the world, he took down all anti-Semitic signs in Berlin.
44 Hitler announced that the Olympic games would show the world Aryan superiority and the inferiority of the Jews and Blacks.This did not come true.Jesse Owens, the African-American runner, sprinter, and long-jumper won 4 gold medals.When Owens won, Hitler left the reviewing stand.
48 Kristallnacht (the night of broken glass) On the Night of November 9, 1938, Nazi mobs attacked Jews in their homes and on the streets and destroyed thousands of Jewish-owned buildings.This rampage signaled the real start of Jewish elimination.