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Presentation on theme: "TRANSFER OF LEARNING INTRODUCTION TYPES OF TRANSFER"— Presentation transcript:


2 INTRODUCTION Purpose of school is to develop children’s skills and knowledge necessary for functioning effectively inside and outside the school. Worth of any learning is application of knowledge and skills in learning new skill or concept or using it in another situation. It is meaningless to learn something that you can’t apply it.

3 Meaning of transfer of learning
Situation where the learned knowledge and skills are used either in learning another information, knowledge, skills or attitudes in new situation, at another time or in real life situation. It includes knowledge and skills acquired through experience which helps the student to learn anything in classroom.

4 Knowledge and skills acquired in the classroom or at school are applied in solving problems outside the school or in new situation or in the real life environment Knowledge and skills gained in one subject are applied in learning another subject or knowledge in one topic is applied in learning another topic.

5 Theories of Transfer of Learning
Mental discipline Identical elements Generalization Gestalt theory Apperception theory

6 Mental Discipline Theory
Learning and training is a mental process. Basic in the transfer of learning is understanding of classical knowledge which includes the study of logic, grammar, science and mathematics. This means that if you acquire knowledge and understanding in these fields you can be able to understand better the knowledge in other fields.

7 If you learn well logic you can use logical skills in solving math problems. Understanding of logic can also be promoted through learning of grammar. Theory of Identical Elements Transfer of learning occurs when the person carries from one situation elements that are identical with the second situation where knowledge is to be transferred.

8 There are elements that are identical that a person carries in another situation.
These identical elements include procedures, concepts, actions, facts, attitudes, principles or techniques. Example, a student has learnt geometry in school; measuring angles or sides of figures can also apply in actual work of carpentry or masonry.

9 Generalization theory
The knowledge gained through memorization can be related and associated to many other experiences and practices. So, the learner can be able to transfer that knowledge to another situation without directly apply specific knowledge from the first context. Transfer occurs by a using memorized knowledge to other situations through general understanding of an idea from one or more situations.

10 Gestalt theory Transfer of learning occurs when a person is able to understand the information or idea, its meaningfulness and its application to the daily life during the time of learning or when experiencing something. This depends on the learners’ ability to understand the meaning of the idea or knowledge in one situation and understanding its application in other situations.

11 In school, for example you learn how to prepare manure in biology, you understand that you are going to use it in your agricultural activities. Apperception Theory This theory focuses on linking knowledge, previous and new for effective transfer of learning.

12 This implies that the teacher must help students to assimilate new information in their already acquired knowledge. It also implies that students must have ability to assimilate new information in to the existing knowledge. Using Active learning strategies for students, will make transfer of knowledge effective.

13 Types of transfer of learning
Positive transfer Negative transfer Positive transfer: learning of one kind helps another kind of learning or when used in life experiences Examples: Knowledge in geography is used in biology Skills and knowledge in mathematics are used in business

14 Knowledge and principles in psychology are used in caring and bringing up children, understanding and managing students behavior in school or in classroom. Lateral and vertical transfer Lateral transfer: learning of one kind facilitates learning of the same level in other situations or in other contexts.

15 In school, it occurs; When learning of one subject helps in learning another subject. Some concepts, procedures, principles and facts are applied in more than one subject area. Lateral transfer also occurs when experience in solving problems in one situation can be applied in solving problems of the similar kind in another situation or new environment.

16 Knowledge, various skills and attitudes are taught at school but are applicable at home and many things are learned at home and they can help a child to learn well at school Example: cleaning room at home and cleaning the class at school. Writing letters at school can be applied to write letters of various types; official letters, friendly letter or invitation letter for the students’ personal use

17 Vertical transfer Learning of the lower level helps in learning at higher level. Knowledge and skills learned at class seven helps in learning at form II, form II helps in learning form VI (refer Brunner’s Spiral Curriculum). It also includes knowledge acquired during childhood applied during adulthood.

18 Negative transfer Occurs when one kind of learning obstructs another kind. Retroactive inhibition: present learning obstructs previous learning. Proactive inhibition: previous learning obstructs present learning. For example: learning one language (French) may confuse pronunciation of English words previously learned, it may be that they spell the same but with different pronunciation. It may also cause the meaning or the use of the previous language to be forgotten due to learning of the new language or vice-versa.

19 Conditions for Transfer of Learning
Similarity: transfer of learning requires similarity of: knowledge or skills in two kinds of learning or in two situations; situations where learning is to be applied; the required procedures; principle to be applied; problem to be solved.

20 Use advance organizers to see the relationship
What the teacher should do Help the students to see the similarities in two kinds of learning, in using the same knowledge or skills in different situations, Show different situations where the same type of knowledge, skills, concepts or principles can be applied. Use advance organizers to see the relationship Give specific instructions on how to use knowledge or skills gained in one situation to another.

21 Ability of students to transfer
This depends on three major personal mental capabilities of the student; Ability to remember information gained Ability to see relationships Ability to understand information Remembering involves: Principles that have learned and applied in one situation.

22 Ability to understand principles
Understanding of principle is key in their appropriate uses. Strategies: Discuss with students how the principles are applied; Give students chance to identify situations that a principle can be applied, explain and show how to apply; Give examples of various situations where the principle can be applied. Engage students in discovery

23 Concepts and facts needed to learn and understand new learning
Procedures that are followed in solving a particular problem. The context in which the idea was applied in previous learning Without remembering previous information, transfer is less likely to happen and new learning is almost impossible to occur.

24 Ability to see relationships:
Ability to see and relate pieces of information is necessary in transferring knowledge and skills. So, students must have ability to see relationships between one aspect of knowledge and another. Possessing ability to perceive elements of the acquired knowledge that can be related to the new learning

25 Strategies: Over-learning for retaining information Much practice of challenging activities; Use of memory strategies Revise one material before moving to another; Understanding of the structure of the material for perceiving similarities. Application of theoretical knowledge

26 Motivate them in one or both of the following situations:
Motivation student’s motivation in doing their activities for transferring knowledge or training. Motivate them in one or both of the following situations: appraise them when they succeed in transferring knowledge in tasks given that that demand transfer of knowledge. Encourage and support them whenever they try to apply acquired knowledge in the task you give them.

27 Slavin, R (1988): Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice.
Bibliography Bichler & Snowman (1982): Psychology Applied to Teaching. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Com. Elliott et al (2000): Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning. Boston: McGraw-Hill Lutz, J (1994): An Introduction to Learning and Memory. Belmont: Wadsworth. McCormick, R (1999): ‘Practical Knowledge: A View from the Snooker Table’ in McCormick, R & Paechter, C Learning and Knowledge. London Paul Chapman Publishing. Slavin, R (1988): Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice.


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