1.2Discovery of the Double Helix Launched the Recombinant DNA Era 1.2.3Proteins and Biological Function
Place 01_10.jpg here –The three-dimensional conformation of a protein. The amino acid sequence of the protein is depicted as a ribbon.
1.2Discovery of the Double Helix Launched the Recombinant DNA Era 1.2.4Linking Genotype to Phenotype: Sickle-Cell Anemia
Place 01_11.jpg here –The hemoglobin molecule, showing the two alpha chains and the two beta chains. A mutation in the gene for the beta chain produces abnormal hemoglobin molecules and sickle cell anemia.
Place 01_12.jpg here –A single nucleotide change in the DNA encoding the -globin gene (CTCCAC) leads to an altered mRNA codon (GAGGUG) and the insertion of a different amino acid (gluval), producing an altered version of the -globin protein, causing sickle cell anemia.
Place 01_13.jpg here –Normal red blood cells (round) and sickled red blood cells. The sickled cells block capillaries and small blood vessels.
1.3Genomics Grew Out of Recombinant DNA Technology 1.3.1Making Recombinant DNA Molecules and Cloning DN
1.3Genomics Grew Out of Recombinant DNA Technology 1.3.2Sequencing Genomes: The Human Genome Project
Place 01_15.jpg here –A colorized electron micrograph of Haemophilus influenzae, a bacterium that was the first free-living organism to have its genome sequenced. This bacterium causes respiratory infections and bacterial meningitis in humans.
1.4The Impact of Biotechnology Is Growing 1.4.1Plants, Animals, and the Food Supply
Place 01_16.jpg here –Dolly, a Finn Dorset sheep cloned from the genetic material of an adult mammary cell, shown next to her first-born lamb, Bonnie.
1.4The Impact of Biotechnology Is Growing 1.4.2Who Owns Transgenic Organisms?
Place 01_17.jpg here –The first genetically altered organism to be patented, mice from the onc strain, genetically engineered to be susceptible to many forms of cancer. These mice were designed for studying cancer development and the design of new anticancer drugs.
1.4The Impact of Biotechnology Is Growing 1.4.3Biotechnology in Genetics and Medicine
Place 01_18.jpg here –Diagram of the human chromosome set, showing the location of some genes whose mutant forms cause hereditary diseases. Conditions that can be diagnosed using DNA analysis are indicated by a red dot.
Place 01_19.jpg here –A DNA microarray. The glass plate in the array contains thousands of fields to which DNA molecules are attached. Using this microarray, DNA from an individual can be tested to detect mutant copies of genes.
1.5Genetic Studies Rely On the Use of Model Organisms
Place 01_20.jpg here –The first generation of model organisms in genetic analysis included (a) the mouse, (b) corn plants, and (c) the fruit fly.
1.5Genetic Studies Rely On the Use of Model Organisms 1.5.1The Modern Set of Genetic Model Organisms
Place 01_21.jpg here –Microbes that have become model organisms for genetic studies include (a) the yeast Saccharomyces, (b) the bacterium E. coli, and (c) the fungus Neurospora.