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1 Visual Strategies for Supporting English Instruction Presenters: Lisa Holton Pam Wright-Meinhardt.

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1 1 Visual Strategies for Supporting English Instruction Presenters: Lisa Holton Pam Wright-Meinhardt

2 2 Consider: I dont like that pizza.

3 3 Introduction How is meaning conveyed in English? Verbal Language: Pitch Volume Pace Pauses Emphasis Breathing Pattern

4 4 Introduction How is meaning conveyed in ASL? Location Pace Speed Distance Sign Movement Facial Expressions Body Movement

5 5 Never Lose Why Dont be content with surface meaning. Look deeper for a more complete understanding Its tempting to give for now or in this case answers, but be cautious of teacher-dependency Dont be afraid to go on a journey of why? with your students Look things up when you arent sure Consider each specific situation and try to generalize when possible There are ALWAYS exceptions, so be careful with rules

6 6 Parts of Speech Review Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs (Ad/Verbs) Conjunctions Coordinating FANBOYS Subordinating (because, while, since, although, etc) Correlative (not only…but also, either…or, etc) Prepositions Pronouns (Hand shape) Interjections (Ouch, wow, oh, no) Determiners (sometimes put with adjectives)

7 7 Excerpt from Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll …He took his vorpal sword in hand: Long time the manxome foe he sought – So rested he by the Tumtum tree, And stood awhile in thought And as in uffish thought he stood, The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame, Came whiffling through the tulgey wood, And burbled as it came! … 'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe; All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe.

8 8 Attend to functiondont get stuck with a single meaning or even multiple meanings with the same function. Strengthen vocabulary by teaching function, concepts, and forms Light Noun : Turn on the light. The light is broken. The lightening was bright. Adjective : My shirt is light blue. The feather is light. I will add a lightening agent to the paint. Verb : Come on baby light my fire. We will light out of town. We need to lighten the load. Adverb : The cat tread lightly across the hot pavement. Function in the Real World

9 9 Activity Functions of the word RUN Noun Verb Adjective

10 10 To Meanings of TO: Go Ahead I want to eat To a place (preposition) I am going to the mall Until (from-to) I will be there from 4:00 to 7:00 Up to He grew to six feet It is important to note that signs may vary, but when teaching the concept, differentiate the signs

11 11 To with Verbs Infinitive= To + Verb *NOT VERBS* I never wanted to see the movie. Jeremy told me to go home. Carla and Kim arent planning to throw a birthday party. Infinitives often lead to Noun phrases Mom, I want to buy a new car. I couldnt believe she was planning to consider that hideous brown dress! Some infinitives can be finished with prepositions or prepositional phrases Tyler told me to look around the room.

12 12 In, On, At Selective Strategy Time It happened in It happened on November 10 th. It happened on Monday. It happened at 10:37pm. Place I live in the United States. I live in MN. I live in Faribault. I live on Main Street. I live on the east side. I live at 2416 Main Street. I am at the mall. IN ON AT

13 13 Determiners These words signal nouns Placed before adjectives (before nouns) or before a noun (without an adjective) Four general categories: A/An/The Possessive pronouns (Closed 5 Hand) Quantifiers Numbers (how many) Some, all, none, a few, several, every, no, etc Demonstrative Pronouns This, That, These, Those Spatial: This, These vs That, Those Plurality: This, That vs These Those

14 14 Royal Order of Adjectives

15 15 Much/Many Both of these are quantifiers (determiners) used before nouns Count and Non Count nouns Count nouns: You can count them Trees, snowflakes, hours, students, gallons of milk Non-Count nouns (mass): Cannot be individually counted *or you would not WANT to count them individually* Water, milk, money, time, hockey Usually do not tolerate S IES or ES for pluralizing Visual Strategy: Many sign has countable fingersCOUNT nouns Much sign had non-moving fingersNON COUNT nouns

16 16 Less/Few Both of these are quantifiers (Determiners) used before nouns Count and Non Count noun dependent Visual Strategy: Few sign has countable fingersCOUNT nouns Less sign had non-moving fingersNON COUNT nouns

17 17 Bridge Words English words that when used together have a different meaning that needs to be signed differently It helps students break away from word-by-word writing and recognition Useful when a student asks whats the word for ___ STRATEGY: Use a bridge when instructing The people came together for the party. Examples: Fill up Back and forth Look like Feel like Dont know Dont care Roll up Make Up

18 18 Bridge Verbs Verbs are rarely just one word Example: We tend to teach: Walk, Walks, Walked But what about: Will walk Could/Can walk May/Might walk Has/Had/Have walked Do/Does/Did walk Is/Am/Are walking Was/Were walking Has/Have/Had been walking Would have been walking May/Will be walking

19 19 Adaptation from Fitz Key *Not for everyone*

20 20 Subject/Verb Agreement Find a tool that works S Strategy: Only one S Plural Subjects have an S so the verb does not The girls like playing with dolls. Singular Subjects do not have an S so the verb does The girl likes playing with dolls. Holds true for: Do/Does, Go/Goes, Have/Has, Are/Is Is/Are: Is: used with singular subjects, non counts, and collective nouns (has an s) Are used with plural subjects and plural count nouns Strategy: Which has more letters? (IS vs ARE) IS only has 2 letters but ARE has 3ARE Is used for plural Strategy: little i: Use i as the #1 or as a lonely, singular concept

21 21 Block Visual Tool for Subject-Verb Agreement

22 22

23 23 Compound Sentence Structure Punctuation For students struggling with punctuation Compound sentence= Two complete sentences put together with either: Comma + FANBOYS conjunction The movie was great, but I think the first one was better. Semicolon She told me her big secret; I nearly fell off my chair. Reminders: A comma is not strong enough to hold two complete sentences together (Comma Splice) A semicolon is! (super comma)

24 24 Complex Sentence Structure Punctuation Complex sentence = Dependent and Independent together Study Subordinating Conjunctions (when, because, while, since, etc). Subordinating conjunctions make independent sentences dependent. Teach because first to use the strategy: When the dependent is first, you need a comma When the independent is first, you dont need a comma (brush off) Because the fair is next week, I am going to request some days off work. I am going to request some days off work because the fair is next week. TOTALLY interchangeable with/without the comma

25 25 Never Lose Why Dont be afraid to go on a journey of why? with your students Look things up when you arent sure Consider each specific situation and try to generalize when possible There are ALWAYS exceptions, so be careful with rules

26 26 Resources/Websites Grammar Overall (Great parts of speech too) Great: Very Good: Parts of Speech: htm htm list.htm list.htm


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