Presentation on theme: "Increasing interaction between lnternational students (IS) and Local students (LS) Ongoing Research in the English Language classroom. Candy Gray Department."— Presentation transcript:
1Increasing interaction between lnternational students (IS) and Local students (LS) Ongoing Research in the English Language classroom.Candy GrayDepartment of Education and Children’s Services South AustraliaPedagogies of ConnectionAlice Springs July 2008I would like to acknowledge the original owners of this land now called Alice Springs, the <<arr-un-da>> people
2Outline Connection: Who am I? Who are you? Who are we? Background: Experiential and Academic influencesThe hypothesesThe methodThe resultsDiscussionConclusionEvaluation of the processRecommendationsReferencesFinal quote
3Connection: Who am I? (Who are you?) Who are we? an opal miner, a tobacco picker, a tour guide, ..single by choice (a serial monogamist)a student of a second languagea B.A., Dip.Ed., M.A. in Applied Linguisticsa high school teacheran EFL, ESL/EAL teacher, lecturermotivated to find the best way to teach the English language without being a cultural imperialist and to these ends constantly reflect on own practice to evaluate and improveoperating in the role of colleague? with expertise?
4Background: Experiential limited interaction in university tutorial between LS and ISlimited interaction in university and high school grounds between IS and LSlimited interaction in mainstream high school classrooms between IS and LSlack of activities in mainstream classrooms encouraging interactionundervaluing of cultures not dominant in AustraliaTakeda (2005) paper: “not enough acceptance that interaction across cultures is a two-way process” .. “the university has a role to play” .. “projects that require interaction in class”
5Background: Academic influences Illustration of Need [Cambridge RSA course in TEFL]Learning Theory that “language is a social semiotic”[Halliday, SFG, ESL Scope and Scales, GBT]– a text is a piece of language in useLearning Theory of language learning as Social PracticesConstructivismLearning theory of ZPD (Vygotsky)ScaffoldingLearning Theory that learning occurs in Communities of PracticeInclusive practicesLearning Theory that the best pedagogy is one based on Connection
6familiarisation with key concepts and terms clarification of purpose Generic version of method to enable real interaction between IS and LS.familiarisation with key concepts and termsconnection withother participantsclarification of purposeperformance in roles
7Generic version of method to enable real interaction familiarisation with key concepts and terms(Inclusive activities)connection withother participants(Community of Practice; Pedagogy of Connection)clarification of purpose(Illustration of need; building on prior knowledge)performance in roles(Language as a social semiotic; knowledge creation; social practices; ZPD; scaffolding)
8The hypothesesenabling students to connect as a learning community in the classroom produces real talk between IS and LS [related to the role they are in (researcher, expert)]real talk between IS and LS organised in the classroom promotes real talk outside the classroom [in other roles (teenager, classmate, global citizen..)]
9Context Male and female students Average age 15 years 10 International students from ESL class from 7 different countries10 Local students from mainstream English class (selected because classes on same line on school timetable)Quiz, Survey + 2 x 50minute sessions
10Familiarisation with key terms and concepts Topic for research by students = Interaction between international students (IS) and local students (LS).Familiarisation with key terms and conceptsResearch:[small group brainstorm and discuss definition –recorder, facilitator, checker; Research skills handout students highlight known vocabulary (all terms to be dealt with as they arise); paragraphing activity on text of a research method]Interaction:[concept map on where students speak English and with whom]LS and IS:[defined and ‘issues’ dealt with; quiz on numbers of language groups in school population; lists given post-quiz for analysis of numbers in different language groups; results of same quiz done by LS provided post-quiz for analysis]
11Connection with other participants (1) IS ISclass work in pairs and groups over one or two terms (this particular group)pair/re-pair shouting activity to find voice (names, subjects, teachers, + spelling of)find points in common (pairs competitive groups)selection of partner for research activity
12Clarification of purpose (1) to identify an issue from the topicto formulate a research questionultimately, to discuss possible answers to the question with local students (in small groups) with all students acting as ‘experts’
13Performance in Role (1): Researcher Secondary source data:Internet search for statistics on numbers of IS in South AustraliaInternet search for existence of interaction between IS and LSPrimary source data:brainstorm survey questionsconduct survey, collate responses, draw graphs of results, discuss graphs; identify a Research Questionbrainstorm evidence of interaction from own experiencecategorise the evidencetransfer categories of evidence to different sheets for small groups of LS and IS to work together on implementation of ideas from one chosen category
14Connection with other participants (2) IS LSIS + LS quiz results shared (all as ignorant as each other of school statistics)IS survey LSfind points in common (pairs group game)selection of category of interest by individualsstudent group according to chosen category (one IS + two LS) and exchange of names
15Clarification of purpose (2) aim to answer the Research Question - collaboration between LS and ISoperate as a group with a facilitator, a recorder, a spell and grammar checker
16Performance in Role (2): collaborative experts (IS + LS) read the evidence for the chosen category and add more ideasbrainstorm how to implement the ideasdiscuss implementation ideaslist the best ideas according to your group decisionevaluate the interaction activity
17Result 1: High quality content language:“in an assembly have a power point presentation, one per student, where they live (map) and information about them.” and “.. teach how to say some words like ‘Hi.’history:“learn about what caused IS to come to Australia”food:“have different kinds of food in the canteen ” .. “international students could teach a lesson in Home Economics to tell people how to make a delicious meal “ .. “share shopping lists” .. “have lessons where we talk about food in different places”customs:‘classes together where we teach each other different customs e.g. the difference between school systems”
18Result 2: High level of participation I observed:a buzz in the room (a hive of activity)no obvious unequal participationall groups returned worksheets with increased evidence points and ideas for implementationeach group had a facilitator, a recorder and a spell and grammar checkersustained concentration on task for varying amounts of time, one group approximately 40 minutes on task
19Result 3: Effect on teacher (me) I experienceddifficulty letting gofear of handing over responsibility for the learningI learnedI was not indispensablestudents are more flexible and capable than I think
20Discussion of results: Hypothesis 1: enabling students to connect as a learning community in the classroom produces real talk between IS and LS related to the role they are in (researcher, expert).The production of quality content and the high level of participation suggests real talk occurred.It is considered likely that this is due to thoroughly preparing the IS enabling them to be participants, the perception by both LS and IS that it was a “two-way process", the constructivist nature of the task, no dominant cultural view and the fact that students were playing a legitimate (authentic) role; and thatsmall group discussion blending LS and IS allowed for scaffolding from “more capable peers” in how to contribute but not what to contribute, made possible by students feeling connected
21Results from interviews 4 months after the interactive sessions. IS + LS100%0%remembered did not rememberthe sessions the sessionsIS + LS100%0%have communicated have not communicatedverbally with students verbally with studentsfrom the other class from the other class inin the interaction the interactionALLOW TIME FOR READING GRAPHSAll participants said that they enjoyed the sessions.
22LS (with IS) IS (with LS) Have you communicated with other IS / LS who were not involved in the interaction lessons in 2007?LS (with IS) IS (with LS)100%60%40%Yes No Yes
23Do you think communication with ESL international students / local students is made easier if you experience organised classroom interaction such as the activities in 2007?LS IS100%40%20%definitely definitely possibly maybeyes yesThis data seems to conflict with the previous data and is considered in the discussion.
24Do you think you have a more positive attitude towards students from a different cultural background than yourself in general because of this kind of classroom interaction?LS IS100%40%20%definitely definitely possibly maybeyes yesThis data also seems to conflict with the previous data and is considered in the discussion.
25Discussion of results: Hypothesis 2: real talk between IS and LS organised in the classroom promotes real talk outside the classroom [in other roles (teenager, classmate, global citizen ..)]Results are not conclusive for Hypothesis 2:all students recalled the activities 4 months laterall students had communicated with ‘other’ participantsIS had communicated with ‘others’ who had not been involved despite saying that communication was not easier and that their attitude was not necessarily more positiveLS had not communicated with ‘others’ who had not been involved despite saying that communication was easier and their attitude more positive
26Conclusion:Using the prescribed method enabled students to connect as a learning community in the classroom and produced real talk between IS and LS [related to the role they were in (researcher, expert)] (Hypothesis 1)Real talk between IS and LS organised in the classroom may promote real talk outside the classroom [in other roles (teenager, classmate, global citizen..)] (Hypothesis 2)
27Evaluation: - + definitions of IS and LS can be problematic the timing needs consideration (over two school terms)+a valuable experience for LS due to their participation in interaction with IS and their expressed improvement of attitudea valuable experience for IS due to their participation in interaction with LS and their exposure in this instance to research skills in a real contextin activities of the types described both IS and LS are presented with a view of a future in which they can play a part in knowledge creation; IS are presented with a view of a future in which they can be equal participants in classroom talk.other teachers aware of student identity issues encouraged to take risks in alternative methods
28Comments on interaction by LS (Year 8 audience to 11ESL presentations): “.. a lot of fun .. enjoyed it a lot” .. “.. felt extremely comfortable ..” .. “I enjoyed the facts and felt like I extended my information of [ ] ..” .. “nice to know a bit about there (sic) culture ..” .. “.. we didn’t have to do any work ..” .. “.. I would like to learn more about there (sic) culture ..” .. “.. I’d like to learn more ..” .. “.. get to know more people ..” ..Interesting to see that students did not regards this type of learning as ‘work’!The next slide are comments from my current, ‘problematic’ ESL class after one the initial interaction sessions.
29Comments on interaction by IS (Year 10ESL on collaborative task with Year 10English) re “Did you enjoy it?”:“.. it was fun time for everybody I think” .. “..we can practise our English .. can know a lot of culture ..” .. “ I like spoke (sic) to the local students. They are fun.” .. “I like this activity. It can make more and more friends.” .. “I want to talk with them again.” .. “I was pleased to have such an opportunity to communicate with a local student. It’s good for the growth of your English.” .. “we can practise our English and improve it.”
30Recommendationsauthentic interactive practices of high-school subjects need to be identified by subject and EAL teachers in collaboration and used as mainstream class activitiesthorough (inclusive) preparation pre-activity is essentialif a priority of education is to enable life-long learning by independent learners then the learning theory behind our curricular warrants revisiona combination of learning theories to guide pedagogy may be optimaltrue internationalisation of curricula would support the described method
31Reference ListCadman, K. (2008) From Correcting to Connecting: A personal story of changing priorities in teaching English as an Additional Language in TESOL in Context Vol. 17 No.2 FebruaryDerewianka, B. (1990) Rocks in the Head: Children and the language of Geology in Carter, R. Knowledge about Language and the Curriculum Hodder and Stoughton UKDoria, C. (2005) The Truth about being an International Student Globally United MelbourneDouglas, A. (2000) Learning as Participation in Social Practices: interpreting student perspectives on learning in Changing English, Vol. 7, No. 2:Hammond, J. (ed.) (2001) Scaffolding – teaching and learning in language and literacy education PETA NSWJones, B. (2006) A Thinking Reed Allen & Unwin NSW page 272Kalantzis, M. and Cope, B. (eds.) (1993) The Powers of Literacy: A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing The Falmer Press UKI put it on two pages so that you could read it.
32Reference List continued Lave, J.(1991) Situating Learning in Communities of Practice in Resnick et al (eds) Perspectives on Socially Shared CognitionMickan, P., Petrescu, I & Timoney, J. (eds) (2006) Social Practices, pedagogy and language use: studies in socialisation Lythrum Press AdelaideRogoff, B. (1994) Developing Understanding of the Idea of Communities of Learners in Mind, Culture, and Activity Vol.1, No. 4 Fall ppSit, M., Mickan, P., Gray, C. (2005) Building Academic Discourse Skills in Chat Rooms in Poedjosoedarmo, G. (Ed) Innovative Approaches to Reading and Writing Instruction Anthology Series 46 SEAMEO Regional Language Centre RELC SingaporeTakeda, K (2005) Report on Interaction between Local and International Students Adelaide University Overseas Students’ AssociationTeramoto, H. (forthcoming) Exploring new arrival-ness: How new arrivals are turned into “New Arrivals”. A Doctoral Thesis manuscript.The Advertiser (2008) The 2020 Summit. Monday April 21st page 4Wenger, E. (n.d.) accessed on 28th April 2006
33Jones, Barry A Thinking Reed 2006:272 A final word:To quote Barry Jones:“An innate sense of inadequacy holds people back from new experiences.”Jones, Barry A Thinking Reed 2006:272This refers to both students and educators. Who am I to tell you what I think? If I dwell too long on this I may not speak.If social theories of learning are what is needed to make our mainstream classrooms better places of learning then it means we must become instruments for change and encourage mainstream teachers to review the learning theory behind their curricula and/or encourage acceptance of an expertise outside their domain.I hope you have found some value.