Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Bringing Digital Technology Back to Earth Presented by Ken Dozier USC Viterbi School of Engineering NASA Far West Technology Transfer Center.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Bringing Digital Technology Back to Earth Presented by Ken Dozier USC Viterbi School of Engineering NASA Far West Technology Transfer Center."— Presentation transcript:



3 Bringing Digital Technology Back to Earth Presented by Ken Dozier USC Viterbi School of Engineering NASA Far West Technology Transfer Center

4 Technology Transfer  NASA Mission: Transfer technology developed in the space program to the private sector,  Across all 50 States  Special focus on SME  Technology in Space Industry should be a technological windfall to the U.S. economy  Windfall - unexpected gain, blessing, unsolicited advantage, serendipity, stroke of luck, pleasant surprise, godsend, boon, bonanza

5 Digital Content Resolutions 480p (DVD Quality) 300Kp 720p (Release Print Quality) 1Mp 1080p (HD Cinema Quality) 2Mp

6 High Definition Imaging  Original Data was 1920 x 1080 (60i)  Two levels of compression  Then converted to 1280 x 720p  Then data was compressed using Microsoft’s Media Player  The projector is being driven by a PC, not a high definition video deck Shuttle/Earth footage


8 Combinations of Compression “311”“322” + 4.4 + 6.7 422 + 4.7 444 + 2.1 444 + 0 Cam Tape

9 A New Paradigm - Economical Technologies  Digital Camera for Acquisition  Immediate feedback for everyone  Immediate editing, color correction, immediate post  Computer(s) Storage  Server Farms  On line conform, color correction, effects, format conversion  Mastering  Digital Projection Screening Room  No tape or film

10 Cinema Master Workflow Source: “A Data-Centric Approach to Cinema Mastering” Thomas J. True, SGI

11 Acquisition Image courtesy of Thompson Grass Valley Camera: Thompson Viper Camera 1080p Output: 4:4:4 10-bit log dpx format (1920 x 1080) Capture: Directors Friend Camera: Sony F950 Output: 4:4:4 10-bit Linear RGB CIF format (1920 x 1080) Capture: Dual HD-SDI tapeless system Image courtesy of Sony

12 Post Production Source: “Digital Infrastructure Solution for Production” J. Farney, SGI Imagica Film Scanners Visual Effects Optical House Titling House CXFS SAN 52 TB TP4900 Brocade Switches Laser Film Output ELab Real-time Coloring Timing and Dust-busting SGI Onyx 3400 Multiversion Rendering SGI Origin 300 DLP Projection Screening Theater Edit Rendering SGI Origin 300 Backup Server SGI Origin 300 ELab Real-time Film Stock Emulation SGI Onyx 3400 eFilm Configuration

13 Source: 1999 Fall Meeting, Community Development Council, Chuck Matthews INFOWORLD, Sept. 2000 Distribution Media Bandwidth B01-017 DSL/ Cable IEEE 1394 / Firewire Gigabit Ethernet LASER / Fast Ethernet 10BaseT / CAT 5 Microwave / Ethernet G2 Wireless G3 / Wireless LAN Async. Transfer Mode (ATM) G1 Wireless Satellite Land-based/ Wired broadband Physical digital media

14 Editing/Post PC-based servers with massive storage Real-time editing in native HD resolution

15 Projection Digital Light Processing (DLP) Developed at Texas Instruments max resolution (2048 x 1080) Direct Drive Image Light Amplifier (D-ILA) Developed at JVC max resolution (2048 x 1536) Image courtesy of JVC Image courtesy of TI

16 Old vs. New “Roadwarrior” connected to Internet and to a projector is a cinema Today’s setup is a DLP Projector (2K) and Surround Sound system

17 Boom mounted Sony F900 camera allowed close moves. Shot @ 1920 x 1080 One day of shooting (4 hours of material) Cameraman used HD Monitor not Eyepiece. Cinema Projector @ 1920 x1080 Pasadena-clip-1 HDTV Title (acquition)“Pasadena”

18  Adobe Premiere using proxy images  Down sampled to 480 x 240 images for editing on ordinary PC  Time Code was not used or needed HDTV Title (post production)“Pasadena”

19  Full 1920 x 1080 resolution HD conformed on a PC  Finished HD playback 1280 x 720. (720P) Pasadena-clip HDTV Title (distribution) Pasadena”


21 NASA Technology Millions $$ in Government funded R&D Special programs for SMEs Available for Licensing and Commercial Development Help in accessing information is available through USC’s Engineering Technology Transfer Center See the web page at

22  PROBLEM ADDRESSED Evaluation of visual quality of digital video (HDTV)  TECHNICAL APPROACH A computationally efficient metric based on human visual processing: (1) Comparison of one or more selected features (image frames, color channels, rows of blocks, columns of blocks, horizontal spatial frequencies, or vertical spatial frequencies) of processed digital sequences of the image under evaluation and a reference image: (2) Processing consisting of sampling, cropping, and color transformations, blocking, acceleration of spatial filtering by taking discrete cosine transforms, temporal filtering and normalization to visual thresholds  POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS Any digital display, e.g. HDTV  BENEFITS (1) Quantitative assessment of display quality that incorporates properties or human visual processing, (i.e., dynamic adaptation to changing brightness, luminance, and chromatic channels, spatial and temporal filtering, spatial frequency channels, dynamic contrast masking, and summation of probabilities); (2) Requires only modest computational resources to compute metrics in real time Sampling, Cropping and Color Transformations Blocking Discrete Cosine Transform Transformation to Local Contrast Temporal Filtering Transformation To Contrast Sensitivity Functions Contrast Masking Pooling Conversion To a Measure of Visual Quality Reference Image Sequence Test Image Sequence DIGITAL VIDEO QUALITY Technology Opportunities

23  PROBLEM ADDRESSED: VISAR is a computer algorithm that corrects for zoom, tilt, and jitter  TECHNICAL APPROACH: By combining several video images together, noise can be averaged out among the frames and the video frames can be centered on the screen.  BENEFITS: (1) Stabilize, sharpen, and brighten image sequences and stills (2) Steadying and reducing the noise in the images, brings out a wealth of information, revealing new, previously obscured details  POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: Surveillance, crime scene footage, sting operations, and dash-mounted video cameras, Security, video feed from aircraft, target identification and confirmation, training, and event reconstruction Images courtesy of NASA Ames Vision group VISAR Image Stabilization and Registration Technology Opportunities



26 VIDEO DISPLAY ENGINEERING AND OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Computer-aided design (CAD) of visual displays TECHNICAL APPROACH: (1) Programmable computer with a number of discrete software modules for modeling display system components; (2) Integration of models of circuit, electro-optics, surface geometry, and physiological optics components to simulate performance of display POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: Design of displays and control interfaces in a variety of applications: e.g., avionics and automotive displays, computer system displays, telecommunications systems, data display systems, entertainment systems BENEFITS: (1) Avoids costly and time consuming iterative conventional design process; (2) All system elements included in simulation, with ability to modify each individually ; (3) Objective performance measurement with comparisons to a a standard system design; (4) Capability of combining empirical data with theoretical models in simulation Technology Opportunities

27 DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AGENTS FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND SHARING (DIAMS) PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Management and sharing of information distributed over the Internet TECHNICAL APPROACH: Gathering, organizing, and sharing of relevant information on the Internet by integrating knowledge-based, neural network and genetic algorithm technologies in distributed and collaborative information agents: (1) Information access based on dynamically organized views of personal information repositories using knowledge-based and neural network representation and indexing; (2) Organization of information based on observing users’ preferences for organizing information; (3) Knowledge exchange protocol for collaboration using distributed automated agents incorporating multi-attribute network objects, added semantic knowledge, and symbolic processing capabilities POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: Widely usable for efficient information gathering on the WWW by individuals and for sharing of information for collaboration; e.g., for distributed manufacturing, joint research projects, military deployments, etc. BENEFITS: (1) Rapid and effective access to information for both individuals and work groups; (2) Dynamically adaptive, avoiding static, hierarchical and monolithic shortcomings of some current Internet information aids; (3) Flexible interface protocols, permitting use of existing tools and capabilities; (4) Reduction in amount of irrelevant information in WWW searches Technology Opportunities

28 AUTOMATION OF INFORMATION ACQUISITION AND MANIPULATION (AIMS) PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Improvement in data search, retrieval, discovery, and processing TECHNICAL APPROACH: Automatic manipulation of digital information with Java-based software that (1) automates the collection and formatting of different data types, followed by (2) complete integration of the data for processing, analysis, and extraction of results POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: Any area in which large amounts of disparate data must be collected and manipulated, e.g. medical imaging; monitoring and control of industrial processes; processing of data in geosciences, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals; development of maps of terrain and demographic information; etc. BENEFITS: (1) A powerful, flexible system that is broadly applicable; (2) Reduction in manual labor; (3) Performance of tasks in real and near-real time; (4) A comprehensive system that not only gathers data, but also identifies, processes and tracks desired information Technology Opportunities

29 ADAPTIVE RELEVANCE-LEARNING SYSTEM (ARNIE) PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Adaptive information indexing and retrieval agent TECHNICAL APPROACH: A computerized personal librarian assistant using a neural network that is dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm: (1) Learns users’ interests based on how they organize information, enabling the encoding of information according to relevance and structure; (2) Permits user feedback on resource utility which is then used to dynamically update ranking of resources POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: Widely usable for information gathering under various contexts: e.g., already used in a Boeing Portable Maintenance Aid, NASA/JSC Adaptive Hyperman Electronic Documentation system in mission control, and WebTagger – a personal bookmarking service for Web-based information resources. BENEFITS: (1) Rapid and effective access to relevant information, with minimization of irrelevant information; (2) Efficacy proven (e.g., 94.8% relevance on retrieved materials when user profile known vs. 10% relevance for unlearned user profile); (3) System accessible from Internet Technology Opportunities

30 ADVANCES IN PARALLEL COMPUTING ON ADAPTIVE GRIDS PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Optimization of parallel computing on unstructured grids TECHNICAL APPROACH: Five approaches, comprising: (1) Improvements in rates and efficiency through multithreading; (2) Partitioning of computational loads among the parallel processors by use of self-avoiding walk algorithm; (3) A load balancing strategy for integrating all major components, including interfaces between a parallel mesh-adapting code and a data remapping module; (4) Balancing loads using a global view that is updated each time the grid is adapted; (5) Load balancing based on symmetric broadcast networks POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: Any adaptive grid tying together parallel processors, e.g. in networks of supercomputers for rapid computation of complex problems, for weather and climate change forecasting, for scientific computing in biology, chemistry, and physics, etc. BENEFITS: (1) Increased computing rates and efficiencies; (2) Reduction of clashes in use of computing resources; (3) More equitable use of computing resources, with particular computing assignments matched to capabilities; (4) Real-time optimization of grid Technology Opportunities

31 SCALABLE HIERARCHICAL NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR DISPLAYING NETWORK INFORMATION IN THREE DIMENSIONS PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Hierarchical network management and control TECHNICAL APPROACH: A three tier network management system comprising: (1) Simple network management protocol (SNMP) agents distributed at one or more sites; (2) Server module configured exclusively for hierarchical network management protocol (HNMP) communications, connected with input-output modules that are configured for both SNMP and HNMP; (3) Management aided by informationally complete and non- iconified views provided of network elements, with network information displayed in three dimensions POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: Generally applicable to any local or wide area network of computers; particularly useful for management of large high speed networks BENEFITS: (1) A distributed architecture system based on open, published, standard; (2) Capability of displaying network information at multiple levels without hiding data behind other data; (3) No editing of displays required of user; (4) Capability of monitoring networks having multiple managerial points of control; (5) Not limited in scalability (6) Not subject to data overload; (7) Does not provide false information due to data flow latency; (8) Substantial user involvement not required Technology Opportunities

32 AUTOMATED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND METHOD, AND REAL-TIME SURFACE TRAFFIC ADVISER PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Real-time data management system for data generated at different rates by many incompatible data sources TECHNICAL APPROACH: (1) A client-server expert system for fusing data from a variety of sources, with means of establishing, predicting, and updating reference data values; (2) electronic communications system for facilitating information sharing between different domains of control; (3) Easy-to-understand electronic display of data POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: Scheduling of movement of multiple vehicles, such as aircraft at airports, marine vessels in harbors and ports, trucks or railroad cars in shipping and switching yards: Useful also for managing containers at shipping docks and stock in factories or warehouses; Simulation and training tool for operators BENEFITS: (1) Control and management in a broad system-wide context; (2) Optimization of resource allocation; (3) Enhanced safety through improved situational awareness; (4) Automatic archiving in an information system database; (5) Efficacy demonstrated in a large airport hub (Atlanta) Technology Opportunities

33 PROBLEM ADDRESSED Numerical measure of the perceptual intensity and difference of an image POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS Photometric instruments, copiers, video codecs, displays, graphics software, Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems BENEFITS (1) Allows quantitative assessment of the goodness of a single image or comparison of two images Spatial Standard Algorithm Difference? SPATIAL STANDARD OBSERVER Technology Opportunities

34 PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Improvement of digital image compression TECHNICAL APPROACH: Discrete cosine transform (DCT) compression of image; customized quantization matrix to image, using: (1) Luminance masking (2) Contrast masking (3) Error pooling (4) Entropy coding POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS Internet multimedia, cable TV, HDTV, motion picture transmission & archival, still or motion picture editing, digital copiers & scanners, digital facsimile machines, digital still-and video-cameras BENEFITS Minimum perceptual error for any bit rate, or minimum bit rate for a given perceptual error can be used as add-on SW module to existing imaging workstations Images courtesy of NASA Ames Vision group OriginalOptimized Technology Opportunities DCTUNE IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY

35 Landmark Connection Jim Steele and Microsoft furnished first digital content to the Far West RTTC to allow testing of the “roadwarrior” Jim Steele and Landmark are furnishing HD content for testing. Exploring possible innovative partnerships for education content in digital cinema venues.

36 Landmark Theatres Overview The largest independent film theatre chain in the U.S. –209 screens in 22 top markets nationwide –12+ million guests per year –Landmark controls 40% of the core audience of independent film goers Atlanta Austin Boulder Boston Chicago Dallas Denver Detroit Houston Los Angeles Madison Milwaukee Minneapolis New Orleans New York Palo Alto St. Louis San Diego San Francisco Seattle Washington, D.C.

37 Landmark Independent Film Audience Highly educated (beyond four-year college degree) Over 79% are over 25+ 50% HHI over $50,000; 12% over $150,000 Career professionals Cultured, urbane, savvy, dual-income Likely to reside in A-counties and East/West coasts

38 Digital CINEMA NETWORK IN 2006 Landmark will be installing an HD digital projection network throughout the chain. Top theatres in the network will feature: UNPARALLELED 4K PROJECTION

39 Programming for Landmark’s Digital Theatre Network will include: Digital films Educational Seminars Interactive Forums Live concerts TV Specials Original partner content Digital On-screen Programs

40 As the cornerstone to its Educational Initiatives, Landmark invites NASA to use its Digital Network and big screen experience to communicate and educate their millions of fans around the country. FY06 Congress is urging NASA to increase utilization of NASA TV.

41 Windows Media HD examples Step Into Liquid - Multiple image capture formats - 720p Windows Media Player Coral Reef -IMAX footage, Stereo Mix -1080p Windows Media Player Mars Rover Animation - Rendered in Pixar RenderMan - 1080p Windows Media Player

42 Brought to you by The NASA Far West Regional Technology Transfer Center

Download ppt "Bringing Digital Technology Back to Earth Presented by Ken Dozier USC Viterbi School of Engineering NASA Far West Technology Transfer Center."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google