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ROLE OF AYURVEDIC SPICES, HERBS AND HERBAL PRODUCTS IN HEALTH CARE N.SRIKANTH ASSISTANT DIRECTOR M.M.Padhi Dy.DIRECTOR G.S.Lavekar Ex- DIRECTOR GENERAL.

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Presentation on theme: "ROLE OF AYURVEDIC SPICES, HERBS AND HERBAL PRODUCTS IN HEALTH CARE N.SRIKANTH ASSISTANT DIRECTOR M.M.Padhi Dy.DIRECTOR G.S.Lavekar Ex- DIRECTOR GENERAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROLE OF AYURVEDIC SPICES, HERBS AND HERBAL PRODUCTS IN HEALTH CARE N.SRIKANTH ASSISTANT DIRECTOR M.M.Padhi Dy.DIRECTOR G.S.Lavekar Ex- DIRECTOR GENERAL CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN AYURVEDA AND SIDDHA Department of AYUSH Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Govt. of India

2 HEALTH CARE PRACTICES HAVE EVOLVED ON THW BASIS Culture Philosophy Geographical conditions Flora & fauna and mineral resources HEALTH CARE PRACTICES HAVE EVOLVED ON THW BASIS Culture Philosophy Geographical conditions Flora & fauna and mineral resources HEALTH CARE PRACTICES

3 Plants, metals, minerals and animal products are extremely used in alleviating the wide range of disease conditions. Use of natural products of medicinal value can be traced from remote past. Man has been in pursuit of new substances that could cure illness and promote health and longevity. AYURVEDA, one such science that philosophies is not merely treating the illness, but counter balancing the disequilibria that results in disease. Plants, metals, minerals and animal products are extremely used in alleviating the wide range of disease conditions. Use of natural products of medicinal value can be traced from remote past. Man has been in pursuit of new substances that could cure illness and promote health and longevity. AYURVEDA, one such science that philosophies is not merely treating the illness, but counter balancing the disequilibria that results in disease. HISTORICAL PROSPECTIVE

4 AYURVEDA Science of life a comprehensive system of health care of great antiquity based on experiential knowledge and grown with perpetual additions Original dimensions of Ayurveda are in built in the ancient compendia of Indian wisdom called Vedas years back. Science of life a comprehensive system of health care of great antiquity based on experiential knowledge and grown with perpetual additions Original dimensions of Ayurveda are in built in the ancient compendia of Indian wisdom called Vedas years back. The knowledge expanded further had evolved fundamentals and concepts of Ayurveda and systematization in classical texts like Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Astanga Sangraha. Present form of Ayurveda is the outcome of continued scientific inputs that has gone in to the evolution of its principles, theories and guidelines of healthy living and disease management.

5 India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity centres having over 45,000 plant species. 16 different agroclimatic zones 10 vegetative zones and 15 biotic provinces Our country has 5,000 – 18,000 flowering plants 23,000 fungi 2500 algae 1600 lichens 1800 bryophytes and 30 million micro-organisms5. Drugs and Pharmaceuticals – Industry Highlights Incorporating Patent Information, CDRI, Lucknow, 1998, vol. 21, pp. 33 – 34. India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity centres having over 45,000 plant species. 16 different agroclimatic zones 10 vegetative zones and 15 biotic provinces Our country has 5,000 – 18,000 flowering plants 23,000 fungi 2500 algae 1600 lichens 1800 bryophytes and 30 million micro-organisms5. Drugs and Pharmaceuticals – Industry Highlights Incorporating Patent Information, CDRI, Lucknow, 1998, vol. 21, pp. 33 – 34. Indian biodiversity – Medicinal Flora

6 SPICES Definition: A spice is a - dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance - used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive - for the purpose of taste, flavour, colour, or as a preservative Definition: A spice is a - dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance - used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive - for the purpose of taste, flavour, colour, or as a preservative

7 Uses of spices in Ayurveda Dietary products Flavor/ fragrance Neutraceutical Preservative Anupana (vehicle for drug) As a Medicine Dietary products Flavor/ fragrance Neutraceutical Preservative Anupana (vehicle for drug) As a Medicine

8 Long pepper, Chilli, Turmeric, Cumin, Ginger, Curry leaf, Coriander, Cinnamon, Cardamom, Clove, Garlic, Onion Spices as components of Masala Powders (Spice mixes)

9 Make food Attractive and Palatable Impart Typical aroma, Flavour, Pungency, Colour, Even texture SPICES USED AS FOOD ADJUNCTS

10 Some Important Spices mentioned in Ayurveda Some Important Spices mentioned in Ayurveda

11 Sl. No. Sanskrit nameEnglish name Latin NameFamily 1.Adraka/ shunti Ginger/ dry ginger Zingiber officinale Roxb. Zingiberaceae 2. Ahiphena beeja - Khus Khus Tila Poppy seed Papaver somniferum Linn Papavaraceae 3.AkupatriCinnamon leaf Cinnamomum tamala (Buch-Ham) Nees & Eberm. Lauraceae 4.DalchiniCinnamon Cinnamimum zeylanicum Blume Lauraceae 5.DhanyakaCoriander seed Coriandrum sativum Linn Apiaceae

12 6.HaldiTurmericCurcuma longa Linn. Zingiberaceae 7.HinguAsafoetidaFerula foetida Regel. Apiaceae 8.Jaiphala (aril)Mace Myristica fragrans Houtt. Myristacaceae 9.Jaiphala (fruit)Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Houtt. Myristacaceae 10.JeerakaCumin seed Cuminum cyminum Linn Apiaceae Sl. No. Sanskrit nameEnglish name Latin NameFamily

13 Sl. No. Sanskrit nameEnglish name Latin NameFamily 11.KajutakaCashew nutAnacardium accidentale Anacardiaceae 12. Kumkum(Kesara) SaffronC.Sativus Guttiferae 13. Krishna jeeraka (Shahjeera) Black CarawayCarum carvi Apiaceae 14.LasunaGarlicAllium sativum Linn. Liliaceae 15.LavangaCloves Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merr M.Perry. Myrtaceae

14 16.MarichaBlack pepperPiper nigrumPiperaceae 17.MethikaFenugreek Trigonella foenum graecum Linn Fabaceae 18.MisreyaFennelFoeniculum vulgare MillApiaceae 19.PalanduOnionAllium cephaLilliaceae 20.PippaliLong pepperPiper longumPiperaceae Sl. No. Sanskrit nameEnglish name Latin NameFamily

15 Sl. No. Sanskrit name English name Latin NameFamily 21.PudinaMintMentha viridis LinnLamiaceae 22. Rakta maricha ChilliesCapsicum annumFabaceae 23.SarshapaMustard seedBrassica oleraciaBrassicaceae 24.Saileya Black stone flower Parmelia perlata (Huds.) Ach. Parmeliaceae 25.Sthulaila Black (big) cardamom Amomum subulatum RoxbZingiberaceae

16 26.Sukshmaila Green (small) cardamom Elettaria cardamomum (Linn.) R.Br. Zingiberaceae 27.Surabhi Nimba Curry tree or sweet neem leaf Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng Rutaceae 28.Sweta marichaWhite pepperPiper longum Linn.Piperaceae 29.TilaSesame seed Sesamum indicum Linn. Pedaliaceae Sl. No. Sanskrit nameEnglish name Latin NameFamily

17 Name Chief Constituents Arecanut Catechin, Arecolin Asafoetida Mixed Allyl sulphides Caraway Carvone Cardamom Cineol, Borneol, Camphor Celery Limonene Chillies and capsicum Capsaicin Cinnamon bark Cinnamaldehyde Name Chief Constituents Arecanut Catechin, Arecolin Asafoetida Mixed Allyl sulphides Caraway Carvone Cardamom Cineol, Borneol, Camphor Celery Limonene Chillies and capsicum Capsaicin Cinnamon bark Cinnamaldehyde CHIEF CONSTITUENTS OF IMPORTANT SPICES DIETARY SPICES IN HEALTH AND DISEASES : I, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 52 (2) : 106–122 Name Chief Constituents Cinnamon leaves Eugenol Clove Eugenol Coriander leaf Decyladehyde Coriander seeds Decyladehyde Cumin, white Cinnamaldehyde Curry leaf Pinene; dipentene Dill Dillephole, Carvone Name Chief Constituents Cinnamon leaves Eugenol Clove Eugenol Coriander leaf Decyladehyde Coriander seeds Decyladehyde Cumin, white Cinnamaldehyde Curry leaf Pinene; dipentene Dill Dillephole, Carvone

18 Name Chief Constituents Fennel Anethole, bitter alkaloid Garlic Dilalkyl and trisulphides, Allicin Ginger Camphene, Zingiberene, Mace Pinene, camphene Mustard Thioglucosides, Nutmeg Myristicin, Geraniol, Name Chief Constituents Fennel Anethole, bitter alkaloid Garlic Dilalkyl and trisulphides, Allicin Ginger Camphene, Zingiberene, Mace Pinene, camphene Mustard Thioglucosides, Nutmeg Myristicin, Geraniol, CHIEF CONSTITUENTS OF IMPORTANT SPICES Name Chief Constituents Onion Alkyl Disulphide Poppy Opioids Saffron Picrocrocin Tamarind Tartaric Acid, Glucose Turmeric Curcumin, Zingiberene Name Chief Constituents Onion Alkyl Disulphide Poppy Opioids Saffron Picrocrocin Tamarind Tartaric Acid, Glucose Turmeric Curcumin, Zingiberene

19 Spices – Therapeutic uses

20 Medicinal properties of spices recognized for a long time __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Spice Medicinal Properties ______________________________________________________________________________________ TurmericAnti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative, good for affections of the liver, jaundice, (Curcuma longa) diseases of blood, wound healing, Asthma, other respiratory infections. Red pepper Anti-inflammatory, for pain relief (Rheumatism & neuralgia); (Capsicum annuum) useful in indigestion, rubefacient. Garlic Anti-dyspeptic, anti-flatulant, for ear infection, as rubefacient in skin diseases, (Allium sativum) anti-hypertensive Onion Diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, for bleeding piles (Allium cepa) Fenugreek Diuretic, emmenagogue, emollient, anti-diabeticuseful in heart diseases. (T. foenum-graecum) Cumin (CuminumAntispasmodic, carminative, digestive stimulant cymminum) Coriander Anti-dyspeptic, flavourant (Coriandrum sativum)

21 Blood cholesterol lowering (especially LDL-cholesterol) Garlic, Onion Capsaicin / Red pepper Curcumin / Turmeric Fenugreek Prevention of Low Density Lipoprotein oxidation Ability to inhibit platelet aggregation (Anti-thrombotic) Hypotensive property

22 Fenugreek Seeds Onion Garlic Curcumin (Turmeric) Cumin Curry leaves

23 Curcumin (Turmeric) Eugenol (Clove) Capsaicin (Red chilli) Garlic and its sulfur compounds Onion and its sulfur compounds Ginger

24 CURCUMIN (From TURMERIC) CAPSAICIN (From Red Chilli) GINGER

25 The medicines locally available (in immediate surrounding) will be suitable for the person (Patient) of that particular area. Evan if he resides in other places, the medicines of similar origin and properties should be used for him.

26 Sl. No. Name of the spice Therapeutic uses / Indications 1. Ginger/ dry ginger Appetizer; useful in Cough, Rheumatoid arthritis, Piles, Bronchial asthma 2.Poppy seedUseful in Diarrhea, Cough, Cold, Asthma 3.Cinnamon leafAppetizer, Digestive, Blood purifier, Diuretic 4.Cinnamon bark Corrects foul smell of mouth; useful in abdominal pain, indigestion 5.Coriander seed Appetizer, Digestive, Analgesic, Diuretic, Anti - inflammatory actions

27 6. Turmeric Anti - inflammatory, Analgesic, Anti-septic; useful in Diabetes, Skin diseases, Fever, Anti-toxic 7. Asafoetida Analgesic, Appetizer, Digestive, Cardiac tonic, Anti- helminthic, Diuretic; useful in Bronchial asthma, Dysmenorrhea 8. Mace (aril) Anti - inflammatory, Analgesic, deodorant, anti- convulsant, Appetizer, Aphrodisiac ; useful in Skin disorders, Fevers 9. Nutmeg Useful in Insomnia, Pain, Indigestion, Diarrhea, Worm infestation, Cough, Bronchial asthma 10. Cumin seed Appetizer, Digestive, Anti-helminthic, Blood purifier, Diuretic; useful in Skin diseases, Fever Sl. No. Name of the spice Therapeutic uses / Indications

28 Sl. No. Name of the spice Therapeutic uses 11.Saffron Deodorant, Brain tonic, Digestive, Antiemetic, Detoxicant; useful in Piles, Worm infestation, Skin diseases 12.Garlic Detoxicant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Appetizer, Digestive, Diuretic 13. Black Caraway (Shahjeera) Anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, Digestive, gives taste to the food; useful in Indigestion, Worm infestation, chronic fevers, Amoebiasis 14.Cloves Anti-helminthic, Appetizer, Digestive, gives taste, Aphrodisiac, Diuretic; useful in Bronchial asthma, Fevers 15.Black pepper Useful in Skin diseases, Indigestion, Liver disorders, Abdominal pain, Fevers 16.Fenugreek Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Nervine tonic, Digestive, General tonic

29 17.Fennel Cardiac tonic, Diuretic, Aphrodisiac, General tonic; useful in fevers, Nausea, Indigestion, Abdominal pain, Dysentery, Dysuria 18.Onion Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Digestive, Appetizer, Carminative, Liver stimulant, Diuretic 19.Long pepper Brain tonic, Appetizer, Liver stimulant, Diuretic, Aphrodisiac; useful in Cough, Bronchial asthma, Skin diseases, Fevers 20.Mint Deodorant, Analgesic, Appetizer, Anti-helminthic, Cardiac stimulant, Diuretic, detoxicant, Anti-pyretic 21.Chillies Appetizer, Cardiac stimulant, Diuretic; useful in Fevers, Rheumatoid arthritis, Backache, Sciatica, Osteoarthritis, Anorexia 23.Mustard seed Analgesic, Appetizer, Anti-helminthic, Cardiac stimulant, Diuretic; Useful in skin diseases, Sl. No. Name of the spice Therapeutic uses

30 MEDICINAL PLANTS IN HEALTH CARE

31 Sl. No. Name of the spice Therapeutic uses 24. Black stone flower Cardiac tonic, Appetizer, gives taste to the food; useful in skin diseases, renal stones, Bronchial asthma, Fevers, Headache, Urinary disorders 25. Black (big) cardamom Deodorant, Analgesic, Carminative, Cardiac stimulant, Diuretic, Detoxicant; useful in Wound healing 26. Green (small) cardamom Deodorant, Antiemetic, Appetizer, Digestive, carminative, Cardiac tonic, Diuretic, General tonic 27. Curry tree or sweet neem leaf Appetizer, Digestive, Detoxicant; useful in Piles, Diarrhoea, Emesis, Fever, Helminthiasis, Dysentery, Colic 28.White pepper Useful in Skin diseases, Indigestion, Liver disorders, Abdominal pain, Fevers 29.Sesame seed Analgesic, Hair tonic, Brain tonic, Appetizer, Aphrodisiac, general tonic; Useful in Dysmenorrhoea

32 Charaka classification of drugs in to groups 50 Mahakashaya (Groups) Each group consists 10 drugs having similar properties/ actions 50 Mahakashaya (Groups) Each group consists 10 drugs having similar properties/ actions Deepaneeya kashaya – Stomachics Pippali, Pippalimula, Chavya, Chitaka, Shunti, Amlavetasa, Maricha, Ajamoda, Bhallatakasthi, Hingu niryasa Deepaneeya kashaya – Stomachics Pippali, Pippalimula, Chavya, Chitaka, Shunti, Amlavetasa, Maricha, Ajamoda, Bhallatakasthi, Hingu niryasa Hridya kashaya – Cardiac Tonics Amra, Amrataka, Lakucha, Karamarda, Vrikshamla, Amlavetasa, Kuvala, Badara, dadima, Matulunga Hridya kashaya – Cardiac Tonics Amra, Amrataka, Lakucha, Karamarda, Vrikshamla, Amlavetasa, Kuvala, Badara, dadima, Matulunga Vishaghna kashaya – Detoxicants Haridra, Suvaha, manjista, Sukshmaila, Palindi, Chandana, Kataka, Shireesha, Sindhuvara, Shleshmataka Vishaghna kashaya – Detoxicants Haridra, Suvaha, manjista, Sukshmaila, Palindi, Chandana, Kataka, Shireesha, Sindhuvara, Shleshmataka

33 Chardinigrahana kashaya – Anti-emetics Jambu, Amrapallava, Matulunga, Amlabadara, Dadima, Yava, Yasti, Usheera, Mrita, Laja Chardinigrahana kashaya – Anti-emetics Jambu, Amrapallava, Matulunga, Amlabadara, Dadima, Yava, Yasti, Usheera, Mrita, Laja Swasahara kashaya – Anti-asthmatics Shati, Puskaramula, Amlavetasa, Ela, Hingu, Aguru, Surasa, Tamalaki, Jeevanti, Chandana Swasahara kashaya – Anti-asthmatics Shati, Puskaramula, Amlavetasa, Ela, Hingu, Aguru, Surasa, Tamalaki, Jeevanti, Chandana Shothahara kashaya – Anti-inflammatory drugs Bilwa, Agnimantha, Shyonaka, Patala, kashmari, Brihati, Kantakari, Gokshura, Saliparni, Prishniparni Shothahara kashaya – Anti-inflammatory drugs Bilwa, Agnimantha, Shyonaka, Patala, kashmari, Brihati, Kantakari, Gokshura, Saliparni, Prishniparni Mahakashaya Jwarahara kashaya – Anti-pyretics Sariva, Sarkara, Patha, Manjishta, Draksha, Peelu, Parushaka, Abhaya, Amalaka, Vibheetaka Jwarahara kashaya – Anti-pyretics Sariva, Sarkara, Patha, Manjishta, Draksha, Peelu, Parushaka, Abhaya, Amalaka, Vibheetaka

34 Shulaprashamana kashaya – Analgesics Pippali, Pippalimula, Chavya, Chitraka, Sringavera, Maricha, Ajamoda, Ajagandha, ajaji, Gandeera Shulaprashamana kashaya – Analgesics Pippali, Pippalimula, Chavya, Chitraka, Sringavera, Maricha, Ajamoda, Ajagandha, ajaji, Gandeera Shonitaastapana kashaya – Styptics Madhu, Madhuka, Rudhira, Mocharasa, Mritkapala, Lodhra, Gairika, Priyangu, Sarkara, Laja Shonitaastapana kashaya – Styptics Madhu, Madhuka, Rudhira, Mocharasa, Mritkapala, Lodhra, Gairika, Priyangu, Sarkara, Laja Vayahstapana kashaya – Anti-inflammatory drugs Amrita, Abhaya, Dhatri, Mukta, Sweta, Jeevanti, Atirasa, Madukaparni, Sthira, Punarnava Vayahstapana kashaya – Anti-inflammatory drugs Amrita, Abhaya, Dhatri, Mukta, Sweta, Jeevanti, Atirasa, Madukaparni, Sthira, Punarnava Mahakashaya

35 Ayurvedic Herbal Products Different dosage forms 1.Asava & Arista 2.Arka 3.Avaleha or Leha 4.Kwatha 5.Guggulu 6.Ghrita 7.Churna 8.Taila 9.Dravaka 10. Lavana kshara 1.Asava & Arista 2.Arka 3.Avaleha or Leha 4.Kwatha 5.Guggulu 6.Ghrita 7.Churna 8.Taila 9.Dravaka 10. Lavana kshara 11. Lepa 12. Mandura 13.Vati/ Gutika 14.Varti 15.Netrabindu 16.Anajana 17.Sattwa 18.Kupipakwarasarayana 19.Pisti 11. Lepa 12. Mandura 13.Vati/ Gutika 14.Varti 15.Netrabindu 16.Anajana 17.Sattwa 18.Kupipakwarasarayana 19.Pisti

36 Asava & Arista Definition: Asavas and Aristas are meidicinal preparations made by soaking the drugs, either in powder form or in the form of deocoction (Kashaya), in a solution of sugar or jaggery, as the case may be, for a specified period of time, during which it undergoes a process of fermentation generating alcohol, thus facilitating the extraction of the active principles contained in the drugs. The alcohol, so generated, also serves as a preservative. Asava & Arista Definition: Asavas and Aristas are meidicinal preparations made by soaking the drugs, either in powder form or in the form of deocoction (Kashaya), in a solution of sugar or jaggery, as the case may be, for a specified period of time, during which it undergoes a process of fermentation generating alcohol, thus facilitating the extraction of the active principles contained in the drugs. The alcohol, so generated, also serves as a preservative. AbhayaristaAmritarista AravindasavaAsokarista AswagandhadyaristaAhiphenasava UsherasavaKanakasava KarpurasavaKutajarista Kumaryasava

37 Arka Definition: Arka is a liquid preparation obtained by distillation of certain liquids or drugs soaked in water using the Arkayantra or any convenient modern distillation apparatus. Arka Definition: Arka is a liquid preparation obtained by distillation of certain liquids or drugs soaked in water using the Arkayantra or any convenient modern distillation apparatus. Avaleha or Leha Definition: Avaleha or Lehya is a semi-solid preparation of drugs, prepared with addition of jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy and boiled with prescribed drug juice or decoction. Avaleha or Leha Definition: Avaleha or Lehya is a semi-solid preparation of drugs, prepared with addition of jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy and boiled with prescribed drug juice or decoction. AjamodarkaKarpuradyarka JatamamsyarkaMisreyarka Agastya HaritakiAswagandhadi lehya Eladya ModakaKantakaryavalehya Kalyanaka gudaKutajavalehya Kusmadaka RasayanaChyavanaprasha

38 Ghrita/ Taila Definition: Ghrita/ Taila are preparations in which ghee/ oil is boiled with prescribed Kashayas (decoctions) and kalkas of drugs according to the formula. This process ensures absorption of the active therapeutic principles of the ingredients used. Ghrita/ Taila Definition: Ghrita/ Taila are preparations in which ghee/ oil is boiled with prescribed Kashayas (decoctions) and kalkas of drugs according to the formula. This process ensures absorption of the active therapeutic principles of the ingredients used. Amrita ghritaAmritaprasa ghrita Amritabhallataka ghritaAsoka ghrita Indukanta ghritaEladi ghrita Kalyanaka ghritaKasisadi ghrita Changeri ghritaChagalyadi ghrita Jatyadi ghritaJivantyadi ghrita Tiktaka ghritaTriphala ghrita Dasamula ghrita

39 Churna Definition: Churna is a fine powder of drug or drugs. Churna Definition: Churna is a fine powder of drug or drugs. Lepa Definition: Medicines in the form of a paste used for external application are called lepas. Lepa Definition: Medicines in the form of a paste used for external application are called lepas. Ajamodadi churna Avipattikara churnaAmalakyadi churna Eladi churna Chitrakadi churna Jatiphaladya churnaTalisadya churna Trikatu churna Triphala churna Drakshadi churnaNavayasa churna Narasimha churna Panchasama churna Pushyanuga churnaBhallataka churna Rajanyadi churna Samangadi churna Samudradya churnaSitopaladi churna Sudarsana churna Hingwastaka churna Hingwadi churna Hinguvachadi churna Avalgujadi lepa Grihadhumadi lepaDashanga lepaPathyadi lepa Rasottamadi lepa Sothaghna lepaSindhuradi lepa

40 Dasa kupa samo vapi Wells = 1 Pond 10 Ponds = 1 Lake 10 Lakes = 1 Child 10 children =1 plant dasa putra samo dhrumah Advocacy on conservation and cultivation of plants (Vriksha Ayurveda ) Sham na oushadhir vanino bhavanthuh ……. ….be gracious to forests enriched with medicinal plants Shamno raja sthapathirasthu vishnu


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