Presentation on theme: "Low-cost, electricity generating heat engines for rural areas Paul H. Riley Conference Chair Score Project Director International Conference."— Presentation transcript:
Low-cost, electricity generating heat engines for rural areas Paul H. Riley Conference Chair Score Project Director International Conference
1.4 Billion without Electricity Indian Sub continent Sub Saharan Africa … the World 3 Billion people cook on open fire International Conference to bring together key people providing solutions to share novel ideas
International Conference l Thanks to Mr Vincenzo Raimo, Director International Office l Keynote speakers Dr Grace Mukasa »Country Director PA Kenya Mr Kees deBlok »CEO, Aster Thermoakoestische Systemen, The Netherlands l Presenters themes Social requirements and field experience System Design Thermo-Acoustic Engines General Heat Engines l Posters and manufacturers l Delegates ~ 50 people attending Continents of Africa, Asia, Indian subcontinent, North and South America, Europe
Score-Stove Low-cost, smoke-free cooking with wood or dung, generating electricity for rural areas.
Score project l 5 year project £2m award, started 2007 l Social science Needs Impact Inhibitors l Requirements capture Technical Financial Social l Thermo-Acoustics l Appropriate manufacture l Investigate requirements for large scale manufacture >10 M per year
Consortium (core team) l University of Nottingham Lead, Linear Alternator, management, exploitation l City University London Design, development and analysis of low cost stove enclosures. Wood fuelled stove testing with and without TAE l University of Leicester Thermo-acoustics, rigs, PIV l Queen Mary University of London System design, requirements documentation, demonstrator l Practical Action Requirements capture, Social science research, field trials
Strategy Score Core Team Score Centres Score Community Score Partner organisations Intellectual property given free to developing countries, in return for Score owning improvements. Licenses available for developed world Malaysia, Bangladesh, Jaipur, Kenya, Nepal, Uganda 21 Collaboration agreements Local community engagement Research dissemination commercialisation
The need l 1.4 billion have no electricity The rest intermittent: load shedding l Many stove designs Insufficient impact need billions, not 100s thousands l Understanding social context is key Poverty < $2 per day Motivation, e.g. mobile phone Low power, 25W makes a difference, 100 W better. Familiarity with local culture Photographs courtesy Practical Action
Market Survey (from Score Project) l Typical Nepalese house l Target cost* Between £20 and £60 »In large quantities enables 1.2 B to 60 M people BUT………………………….. * 2007 prices
Affordability l Cheapest solution is not the most affordable The right packaged solution makes it more attractive. l Stop using kerosene for lighting. Torches etc. mean kerosene use > zero Typical kerosene cost = £15 to £30 pa l Use of LED lights, low maintenance, cost decreasing due to learner curve. l Need easy-to-use way to monitor electricity So that carbon credits can be claimed. l Low cost entry point uses low capacity battery. Many devices (mobile phones) can be charged during cooking
Generating stove goals l Reduce Wood consumption Smoke inhalation l Improve Health »Reduced smoke »improved understanding of modern medicine »Preservation of prescription drugs (cooling) Education, by means of electricity »light at night »access to knowledge through mobile phone and computer »Radio and TV Wealth »Better education »Access to improved farming methods and commodity prices »Business opportunities (sales and maintenance, selling electricity)
The Score Stove Goal l For £20 - £60 it will Generate electricity. Be affordable. Be Smoke free. Reduces emissions. l Can burn Wood or Dung other biomass propane and kerosene. l help 3 billion rural people l save 10 Mt Carbon per year Score intervention in Nepal. 10 and 20We simulated.
Is Score useful? l Simulated Score Stove 35 houses in Nepal and Kenya 10 – 20 W electrical No smoke, less wood l Satisfaction 100% used electricity for lighting helping education, social 80% used for radio 33% mobile phone charging »16% sold electricity l Interest from Developed world KTP with Warrior Stoves (UK) awarded CHP Benefit can be gained from as little as 15We, longer term 100We targeted.
Technology options l There is no doubt that a reliable smoke-free cooking stove that generates electricity, reduces fuel consumption and is affordable, will sell in the 100s millions and give great benefit. l What technologies can meet these requirements? Erikson cycle Stirling engine Steam engine Solar plus clean cooking stove Thermo-Acoustic Thermo-Electric (Thermopile)
Business Case model l Available on memory stick is an Excel model l The model shows a business case at 3 levels The Household Village Store, or shop Country or large region l Pico Hydro Is cheapest solution, where available Falls behind at regional level as coverage is limited l PV solar Needs to operate in monsoon season (reduced light) Needs smoke free stove as well l Assumptions Can be varied to benchmark different scenarios and technologies Are designed to show consistency across different options Feedback from your technology area is welcome
Score Status April 2012 l Thermo-Acoustic technology chosen l Research phase and dissemination completed l Additional awards made (totalling £0.5M) KTS, KTP, centre establishment, Follow on funds. Significant free support (peoples time) l Score Community running since l City University achieved record of 23We for wood burning TAE. l Scientific (instrumented) rigs built Leicester and Queen Mary University of London l 8 demonstrators built, 8 on order l Cost reduction plan One off demonstrators £2500 in UK, £750 with low labour cost, In 100k pa volume £150 RR audit, £60 with manufacturing improvements More research needed to hit £20 target
Next Steps l Increase output to 50We, then 100We 4 companies interested in manufacture at 50We l Supporting Score Centres l Complete cooling work at Leicester l Sponsorship Field trials Manufacturers l Dissemination event Benchmark with other technologies Form future collaborations
Acknowledgements l The Score project is funded by EPSRC, the UK Engineering and Physical Research Council. l Thanks to the Score Team Professor Chris Lawn, Dr Catherine Gardner »Queen Mary University London, Professor Artur Jaworski, Dr Zhibin Yu, Ms Patcharin Saechan »University of Leicester Professor Keith Pullen and Dr Ron Dennis »City University London Dr Teo Sanchez »Practical Action Professor Mark Johnson, Dr David Hann, Dr Chitta Saha and Mr Lijo George »My Nottingham colleagues l Aster Technology the Netherlands, Mr Kees deBlok l Score Centre Malaysia Dr Yousif Abakr, Mr Baiman Chen, Mr David Wee l The numerous members of the Score Community Especially Mark Loweth
Introducing Dr Grace Mukasa Country Director, Practical Action Kenya
Back pocket slides
Score Objectives l Contribute to increasing wealth and education and improving health in developing countries by investigating appropriate and affordable novel technology to meet the energy needs of isolated rural communities in developing countries. This technology is designated, SCORE, the Stove for Cooking, Refrigeration and Electricity supply. l Develop a Project Network, comprising academics from both the research team and local universities acting as knowledge hubs in the target countries, charities and non-government organisations, government representative and the local communities themselves. Exchange and focus the scientific, technological and social knowledge required by SCORE. Promote SCORE worldwide and provide a database of end-user requirements and product applications l Plan and create the mechanisms for implementation of SCORE by identifying barriers to implementation and proposing solutions, forming collaborations within the developing countries, developing training strategy and suitable training materials, encouraging the acquisition of matching funding, promoting the building of local manufacturing capacity, and highlighting the wider business opportunities of SCORE in developing countries. l Capture and evaluate the underpinning scientific knowledge of thermoacoustic technologies and devise a new engineering concept combining the thermoacoustic engine, electrical generation and refrigeration. Integrate these in a technology demonstrator. l Study heat transfer processes in combustion and thermoacoustic systems and devise a high- efficiency, integrated combustor/heat exchanger/stove unit, capable of fulfilling its cooking function and providing the energy to the thermoacoustic element. Evaluate its performance by experimentation and integrate it into a technology demonstrator. l Devise through interdisciplinary research an inexpensive method to convert acoustic energy into electricity that could be easily mass produced and evaluate its performance. l Study the manufacturability, cost and the potential of using indigenous materials and local skills and based on the technology demonstrator, to design feasible SCORE prototypes, which could be field tested at selected locations. Build and demonstrate the prototypes in selected rural communities. l Benchmark the design against other technologies and recommend future development paths, research and applications.
Project start Mar- Sept 2007 l Original members University of Nottingham (Lead, Management and LA) Imperial college (appropriate manufacture, social-technical interface), University of Manchester, Queen Mary London, (TA technology) The Charity Practical Action (Social science, field studies) l Current members University of Nottingham, City London, University of Leicester, Queen Mary London, Practical Action. l Originally supported by Los Alamos (Scott Backhaus), Dai-ichi (Philippines) 10 other letters of support l Current support Dai-ichi (Philippines), Aster (Kees deBlok), Malaysian campus, PA Bangladesh, BUET, Rolls-Royce, plus other NGO and companies. Score Community launched 2008 Score Centres launched 2010 l Submitted publications to date 11 journal, 16 conference. (4 awaiting publication)
Score Original Plan
The actual plan was different to schedule
Score Centre of Excellence l Malaysia started 2010 l Bangladesh, India started in July 2011 l Targeted at organisations that have both research and teaching capabilities Have capacity and will to propagate Score knowledge l Will be provided with information to Design and analyse TAE* Manufacture Score-Stoves How to Maintain Score Stoves Create business models for Score-Stove exploitation »Explore the franchise type l Support available for creating teaching modules l Quality level of approval and regular checks l Long term to be Self sustaining and sufficient * Thermo-Acoustic Engines
Score Community l Began 2008 now has 14 members Tajikistan, SA, Kenya, Nepal, Uganda, Ghana, China, India. l Loosely bound individuals and organisations Have signed Collaboration Agreement or non-disclosure Score IP* given freely to developing countries Generated IP owned by Nottingham University »Then freely available to all developing countries Access to community web site to share knowledge Licenses available for use in developed countries l Includes self-help community of practice l Encourages profitable enterprises As long as profit stays in developing country l Encourages Research * Intellectual Property