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Earth Science Sec. 1.1 Introduction to Earth Science and Systems.

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1 Earth Science Sec. 1.1 Introduction to Earth Science and Systems

2 Questions Earth Scientists Try to Answer? Will Mt.St. Helen erupt soon? –vulcanologists How can we better forecast hurricanes? –meteorologists Will a meteor hit the earth? –astronomers When will be the next big earthquake? –seismologists Are the melting ice caps affecting the ocean currents? –oceanographers Can an oil well be located at this site? –Petroleum geologists

3 What exactly is Earth Science? All sciences that together seek to understand Earth and its neighbors in Space. –Including Geology Oceanography Meteorology Astronomy Today’s Essential Question:

4 Earth Science Study of ALL the different disciplines put together Everything is connected, interdependence 20 th century concept –due to technology such as satellites and computers that can “put it all together” System

5 Geology Means “study of Earth” 2 Types 1. Physical Examines materials composing the earth Process that operate beneath and upon its surfaces 2. Historical Understand the origin and development of the earth

6 Oceanography Integrates Chemistry, physics, geology and Biology Studies: – Composition and movements of seawater –Coastal processes –Seafloor Topography –Marine Life

7 NOT the study of meteors! Study of: Layers of the atmosphere –Processes that produce weather and climate Meteorology

8 Astronomy Not about your horoscope! Study of the universe: everything that exists! Totality of all space, matter, time and energy Observable universe refers to everything we can “see” What we can “see” is limited by age of the universe and the speed of light.

9 The Earth works as a “System” Definition of system: –Any group of interacting parts that form a complex whole unit

10 With all these new tools and ‘real time’ information, scientists can make complex MODELS of how the earth’s systems work and change. MODEL: representation of an object or a process.

11 2 Types of Systems: page 5-6 Closed system Open System

12 Closed system Self contained. MATTER stays in. Energy (heat) moves freely in and out Example: engine cooling system

13 Open System BOTH Matter and energy move in and out freely More complicated Very common in nature Example: river

14 Open or closed system?

15 Earth: open or closed system? Despite losing stray H atoms from our atmosphere out into space or a stray meteorite coming in, Earth is essentially a CLOSED planet. Solar energy moves freely in and out, But… Earth’s mass remains unchanged. Earth’s resources are finite (all we have)

16 Positive and Negative Feedback Mechanisms Natural or man-made process that are either… NEGATIVE feedback POSITIVE feedback resist change in a system and maintains or stabilizes it Causes, enhances, drives change in a system

17 Positive/negative feedback loop Combustion (cars) increases global warming Warming causes glaciers melt, more land exposed Brown and green land absorbs heat energy Causes more water evaporates from land More cloud cover and less sunny days White cloud tops reflect sun back into space Less heat energy reaches Earth and temperatures decrease causing more snow.

18 What we know so far…. Earth is a ________system because matter cannot freely flow in and out yet _________ can. The Earth Science studies 4 areas: ________ __________ __________ ________ Interacting parts that function as a unit is a _______________ _________ are used to represent an object or show processes.

19 Earth is part of a LARGER system of interacting parts Solar System model activity

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