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Black Carbon Curriculum Lesson 1: Black Carbon Rev 10A Kali Basman, Jessa Ellenburg and John Birks.

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Presentation on theme: "Black Carbon Curriculum Lesson 1: Black Carbon Rev 10A Kali Basman, Jessa Ellenburg and John Birks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Black Carbon Curriculum Lesson 1: Black Carbon Rev 10A Kali Basman, Jessa Ellenburg and John Birks

2 Learning Objectives At the end of this lesson students will be able to: Define and describe Black Carbon. Explain the main Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon. Identify Natural and Anthropogenic Sources of Black Carbon and name two examples of each. Discover the Technology and Policy that can help mitigate Black Carbon.

3 Black Carbon Curriculum Part 1: Define and Describe Black Carbon

4 Black Carbon: Product of incomplete combustion consisting of amorphous carbon. Commonly known as soot. Combustion: The process of the burning of fuels in the presence of oxygen. Incomplete Combustion: Occurs when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react completely, producing harmful chemicals such as black carbon.

5 Black Carbon Curriculum Part 2: Explain the Main Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon

6 Black Carbon in the Atmosphere Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon: These little particles have the ability to change climate and affect human and environmental health. -Albedo Effect -Global Warming -Melting Snow/Ice -Pollution/Visibility -Human Health Black Carbon smoke billowing out of a factory in Hampshire, England

7 Black Carbon in the Atmosphere Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon: -Albedo Effect -Global Warming -Melting Snow/Ice -Pollution/Visibility -Human Health

8 Albedo Albedo : The amount of energy reflected by a surface, measured on a scale from 0-1. The scale refers to the percent of energy that is reflected, with 0 meaning no energy is reflected and 1 meaning 100% of the energy is reflected. Pure Snow: High Albedo, Reflects Sun and cools air Dirty Snow: Low Albedo, Absorbs sun and and warms air Albedo=Reflectivity

9 Albedo Scale Pure Snow: High Albedo Reflects 80% of sunlight Dark Forest: Low Albedo Absorbs 96% of sunlight Green Grass: Medium Albedo Reflects 25% of sunlight, absorbs 75%

10 Black Carbon in the Atmosphere Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon: -Albedo Effect -Global Warming -Melting Snow/Ice -Pollution/Visibility -Human Health

11 Global Warming Most Aerosols = High Albedo -Shiny (like a mirror) -Reflects and scatters sunlight -Cooling effect Black Carbon Aerosol = Low Albedo -Dark and dull -Absorbs sunlight -Warming effect Black Carbon in the Atmosphere: Absorbs sunlight and generates heat, warming the air.

12 Black Carbon in the Atmosphere Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon: -Albedo Effect -Global Warming -Melting Snow/Ice -Pollution/Visibility -Human Health

13 Melting Ice and Snow Black Soot deposited on Tibetan Glaciers

14 Melting Ice and Snow: The Ice-Albedo Feedback Black Carbon in Snow/Ice: Lowers albedo, absorbing more sunlight, causing snow and ice to melt. Known as the Ice-Albedo Feedback. Lowered Albedo More Melting More Sunlight Absorbed

15 Ice-Albedo Feedback Video NASA: Ice Albedo and Glacial Melt

16 Melting Ice and Snow The two most sensitive areas for black carbon: Arctic Melting ice sheets in the Arctic. Himalayas Researchers trek high into the Himalayas to collect ice cores that contain soot deposition.

17 Black Carbon in the Atmosphere Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon: -Albedo Effect -Global Warming -Melting Snow/Ice -Pollution/Visibility -Human Health

18 Pollution/Visibility Smog Pollution in Beijing, China SMOG = SMOKE + FOG

19 Black Carbon in the Atmosphere Impacts and Effects of Black Carbon: -Albedo Effect -Global Warming -Melting Snow/Ice -Pollution/Visibility -Human Health

20 Human Health The Great Smog killed between 4,000 and 12,000 people. 100,000 residents became ill due to emissions, including black carbon.

21 Human Health The health effects of black carbon include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular problems, birth defects and premature deaths.

22 Black Carbon Curriculum Part 3: Identify Natural and Anthropogenic Sources of Black Carbon

23 Black Carbon Emissions by Region Black Carbon Emissions for 2000, in Gigagrams (T. Bond 2007)

24 Anthropogenic Black Carbon Sources

25 Agricultural Burning Major source of Black Carbon Satellite picture of slash and burn agriculture along the Xingu River, Brazil

26 Cookstoves Inefficient Cookstoves: Major source of Black Carbon

27 Natural Sources of Black Carbon Natural Sources of Black Carbon include erupting volcanoes, sea salt, and wildfires. Natural Sources

28 Transport Global Transport of Black Carbon

29 Black Carbon Curriculum Part 4: Discover the Technology and Policy that Can Help Mitigate Black Carbon

30 Policy UK Clean Air Act 1956 US Clean Air Act 1963 Regulation, Monitoring Emissions Black Carbon Reduction Act

31 Policy There are a number of recommended policy actions that would help reduce black carbon emissions, including: Regulating crop burning Banning slash and burn techniques Limiting idling of ships at port Requiring emissions testing for vehicles Adding particle traps for vehicles that filter emissions Requiring the use of cleaner fuels Limiting the use of biomass burning in urban and non-urban areas Requiring permits to operate industrial or power plants that limit black carbon emissions

32 Technology A clean burning, efficient cookstove can reduce smoke and emissions by 80%

33 Technology Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF): One method for filtering diesel exhaust to reduce black carbon. As the exhaust is forced through the filters cell walls, the soot is trapped. At high temps, the trapped soot is burned up.

34 Ways to Reduce Black Carbon Some strategies include: Using clean diesel technologies for engines. Taking mass transit or riding a bike whenever possible. Switching to safe, efficient cookstoves. Using sustainable agriculture that reduces crop burning and slash and burn methods. Reducing trash-burning practices. Supporting strong black carbon regulations. Educating people on the issue of black carbon!


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