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Pierre Elmurr BAppSc (Orthoptics) DOBA MAppSc (ExerSportsSc) Sports Vision Scientist NSW Institute of Sport, Australia An introduction to vision & sports.

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Presentation on theme: "Pierre Elmurr BAppSc (Orthoptics) DOBA MAppSc (ExerSportsSc) Sports Vision Scientist NSW Institute of Sport, Australia An introduction to vision & sports."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pierre Elmurr BAppSc (Orthoptics) DOBA MAppSc (ExerSportsSc) Sports Vision Scientist NSW Institute of Sport, Australia An introduction to vision & sports performance

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3 VISION TRAINING "Vision training for sport is the application of specific exercises conducted over a period of time that leads to neural restructuring of cortex and brainstem pathways allowing a person to maximise efficiency while performing visual perceptual tasks leading to enhanced visual motor performance "Vision training for sport is the application of specific exercises conducted over a period of time that leads to neural restructuring of cortex and brainstem pathways allowing a person to maximise efficiency while performing visual perceptual tasks leading to enhanced visual motor performance Elmurr 2010 Boston sports vision meeting

4 Relationship of vision & skilled movement (Welford 1960 model) Perceptual mechanism divided into the HARDWARE & SOFTWARE Perceptual mechanism divided into the HARDWARE & SOFTWARE Decision mechanism Decision mechanism Effector mechanism Effector mechanism

5 Perceptual Mechanism (Starkes & Deakin 1984) HARDWARE - the reception of visual information; affected by the ocular characteristics of the athletes visual system HARDWARE - the reception of visual information; affected by the ocular characteristics of the athletes visual system SOFTWARE - Perception of visual information; influenced by strategies an athlete develops & includes information processing, use of advanced cues, ball flight cues, gaze behavior and the use of anticipatory skills SOFTWARE - Perception of visual information; influenced by strategies an athlete develops & includes information processing, use of advanced cues, ball flight cues, gaze behavior and the use of anticipatory skills

6 Hardware examination Identifies uncorrected refractive errors, contrast sensitivity and Binocular anomalies that could influence software decision making ? Hardware has limiting factors

7 Ciuffreda model – vision & sport 5 major categories: Resolving detail Estimating depth Tracking moving objects Visual motor integration Visual information processing

8 Vision & sport classification 4 major categories: Visual skills Brain skills Sports IQ skills Sports psychology skills

9 EYE SIGHT Visual acuityEye dominanceContrast Sensitivity Depth Perception OCULARMOTORSKILLS AccommodationBinocular visionDynamic VA Saccades PursuitsstereopsisVergence VISUALPERCEPTUALMOTORSKILLS Eye hand coordination Eye foot coordination Peripheral vision Visualisation Visual memoryVisual perceptionVisual processing VISUAL SKILLS

10 BRAIN SKILLS AnticipationAttentionDecision making Neuroplasticity Pattern recognition Peripheral awareness proprioception

11 SPORT IQ SKILL Decision training Gaze controlSkill acquisition Visual cues Visual searchThe zoneTalent identification

12 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY SKILLS ULTIMATEMENTALATHLETE ConsistencyFlowKiller instinctMental toughness zoneEmotional toughness Mind strength PSYCHOLOGICALSTRATEGIES ArousalBreathingconcentrationMotivation confidenceHumorGoal settingMeditation VisualizationrelaxationPositive thinkingRituals PerseveranceFaithSelf talk

13 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY SKILLS PSYCHOLOGICALOBSTACLES AdversityBurn-outChokingFatigue AggressionPressureFearAnxiety IntimidationAngerPainSelf Doubt SlumpsAddicationStress

14 Generalised vs Specific vision training programs Do generalised visual training programs for sport really work? An experimental investigation Abernethy & Woods Journal of Sports Science 2000 Do generalised visual training programs for sport really work? An experimental investigation Abernethy & Woods Journal of Sports Science 2000 Results found no evidence that visual training programs led to improvements in either vision or motor performance above & beyond simple test familiarity Results found no evidence that visual training programs led to improvements in either vision or motor performance above & beyond simple test familiarity

15 Specific sports vision training research The effects of a visual skills training program on female volleyball athletes, Kluka et al 1996 The effects of a visual skills training program on female volleyball athletes, Kluka et al 1996 Hardware component, statistically significant improvement in Contrast Sensitivity Function Hardware component, statistically significant improvement in Contrast Sensitivity Function Software, statistically significant improvement in speed of recognition Software, statistically significant improvement in speed of recognition Advantageous to create visual skills training programs which closely resemble the volleyball specific environment Advantageous to create visual skills training programs which closely resemble the volleyball specific environment

16 VISION TRAINING MODALITIES Classical vision training Software training Visual awareness training Visual-motor training

17 CLASSICAL VISION TRAINING Based on deficiencies detected during the hardware testing of the visual system Based on deficiencies detected during the hardware testing of the visual system Orthoptic therapies are proven methods based on scientific principles. Success rates vary from 61.9% (Birnbaum et al 1999), to 91% (Grisham 1988) to 100%(Wicks 1994) Orthoptic therapies are proven methods based on scientific principles. Success rates vary from 61.9% (Birnbaum et al 1999), to 91% (Grisham 1988) to 100%(Wicks 1994)

18 CLASSICAL VISION TRAINING A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy. Barrett, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt A large majority of behavioural management approaches are not evidence based and thus cannot be advocated

19 Software Perceptual factors including visual search/gaze behavior, decision making, anticipation, pattern recognition and attention has been shown to discriminate between experts & novices (Abernethy, 1988, Abernethy et al., 1994; Helsen & Starkes, 1999, McPherson & French, 1999; Starkes, 1987; Williams, 2000; Williams et al., 1999) Perceptual factors including visual search/gaze behavior, decision making, anticipation, pattern recognition and attention has been shown to discriminate between experts & novices (Abernethy, 1988, Abernethy et al., 1994; Helsen & Starkes, 1999, McPherson & French, 1999; Starkes, 1987; Williams, 2000; Williams et al., 1999)

20 software eye movements Gaze control is defined as the process of directing gaze to objects within a scene in real time. Gaze control is defined as the process of directing gaze to objects within a scene in real time. A fixation occurs when the gaze is held on an object or location within 3 degrees of the visual angle for 100 milliseconds or longer A fixation occurs when the gaze is held on an object or location within 3 degrees of the visual angle for 100 milliseconds or longer

21 What do athletes see? How gaze is controlled in sport falls into 2 methods of research: How gaze is controlled in sport falls into 2 methods of research: Visual search: the eye movements of athletes are recorded as they view videotapes, photographs, computer simulations, or other simulated content from their sport Visual search: the eye movements of athletes are recorded as they view videotapes, photographs, computer simulations, or other simulated content from their sport Vision-in-action: Uses the gaze of the participant recorded while they perform in real world sport settings Vision-in-action: Uses the gaze of the participant recorded while they perform in real world sport settings

22 Gaze Control In gaze studies in sport, all gaze (fixations, pursuit tracking, saccades, blinks) found in a task to a location, one gaze has emerged called the quiet eye as a significant contributing factor to higher levels of sports performance (Vickers, 1996a). In gaze studies in sport, all gaze (fixations, pursuit tracking, saccades, blinks) found in a task to a location, one gaze has emerged called the quiet eye as a significant contributing factor to higher levels of sports performance (Vickers, 1996a). The Quiet eye is defined as a period of time when the fixation is stable on spatial information critical to effective and consistent motor performance. The Quiet eye is defined as a period of time when the fixation is stable on spatial information critical to effective and consistent motor performance.

23 Focal vision & Quiet eye 4 characteristics of quiet eye A directing of attention to a critical location in the performance environment An onset that occurs prior to the intended movement A duration that is longer for elite performers than for lesser skill level A high level of stability

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26 Visual awareness training 29 elite female hockey players were divided into 3 groups 29 elite female hockey players were divided into 3 groups Group 1 training normally for 4 weeks Group 2 did visual skills training Group 3 received visual awareness coaching on top of visual skills and normal training 22 specific field hockey skills were tested before and after the 4 weeks of training 22 specific field hockey skills were tested before and after the 4 weeks of training Group 1, the control group improved in only 3 of the 22 tests Group 2 improved on 9 of the tests Group 3 improved on 16 of the 22 skills tested. Visual awareness program included on field sports specific activities such as altering the position of the head in relation to the dominant eye and the ball

27 Visual-motor training Combining hardware & software processing produces a motor response Combining hardware & software processing produces a motor response Eye-hand coordination Eye-hand coordination Eye-foot coordination Eye-foot coordination Coincidence anticipation Coincidence anticipation Peripheral awareness reaction time Peripheral awareness reaction time

28 Motor skill Defined as skills in which physical movement is required to accomplish a goal of a task. Classified into 3 groups 1. Precision of the movement: Gross (walking, jumping) vs fine motor skill (writing, drawing) 2. Defining beginning & end point of a skill : Discrete (hitting a button on a keyboard vs continuous motor skill (swimming, running) 3. Stability of the environment : Closed (bowling) vs open motor skill (tennis rally)

29 Motor performance measures Response output: Measures time, error and magnitude of a response Response output: Measures time, error and magnitude of a response Response production: Measures include EMG, EEG measures describing limbs, joints, muscles & brain activity during movement Response production: Measures include EMG, EEG measures describing limbs, joints, muscles & brain activity during movement The most common measure of initiation of movement is reaction time The most common measure of initiation of movement is reaction time Response Time is the total time interval involving both Reaction time & movement time Response Time is the total time interval involving both Reaction time & movement time

30 Motor performance measures 3 common types of RT: 3 common types of RT: Simple RT: Only one signal and one response required (visual stimuli ms, auditory ms) Simple RT: Only one signal and one response required (visual stimuli ms, auditory ms) Go/No- RT: Respond to one stimuli and not respond to another stimuli Go/No- RT: Respond to one stimuli and not respond to another stimuli Choice RT: A distinct response for each possible stimuli Choice RT: A distinct response for each possible stimuli

31 Learning Perceptual learning – ability to improve on a specific sensory/perceptual task with practice Motor learning – process that improves motor performance through practice Other forms of learning – visualization, anticipation, visual attention, range of cognitive strategies

32 Motor learning Motor learning – the changes associated with practice or experience leading to improvements in motor performance (observable production of a motor skill) SVT is the motor learning tool and improvements in motor performance is a decrease in reaction time on the SVT board and on field improvements in hand speed Level of motor performance is susceptible to fluctuations in temporary factors such as motivation, arousal, fatigue

33 Motor learning Improved motor performance due to increasing synaptic efficiency in the neural-network Motor learning involves 3 stages: Determining by trial & error processing the optimal motor program to accomplish a particular task Repeated practicing of the optimal motor program for rapid & precise execution Attaining a level of automaticity, the movement becomes pre programmed allowing attention to be allocated to other related tasks. consistent stimulus response mapping

34 SVT TM independent research, 2001 Statistical established internal validity and test-retest reliability Statistical established internal validity and test-retest reliability Training eye hand coordination 3 times a week ( ½ hr sessions ) for 5 weeks on the SVT TM does improve eye hand coordination as measured on the SVT TM Training eye hand coordination 3 times a week ( ½ hr sessions ) for 5 weeks on the SVT TM does improve eye hand coordination as measured on the SVT TM The skills learnt from training on the SVT TM are transferable to a control device The skills learnt from training on the SVT TM are transferable to a control device

35 VISION TRAINING Higher the skill level of the athlete the more specific the training Higher the skill level of the athlete the more specific the training Higher the skill level requires quantitative analysis and latest technology to measure performance changes Higher the skill level requires quantitative analysis and latest technology to measure performance changes Effective training minimum 2 or 3 times a week for 5 weeks (1/2 sessions). Skills maintained for up to 10 weeks after cessation of training Effective training minimum 2 or 3 times a week for 5 weeks (1/2 sessions). Skills maintained for up to 10 weeks after cessation of training

36 SUMMARY/TIPS Conduct hardware assessment and relate results to on field performance Treat hardware deficiencies ?? Warm up exercises/visual perceptual computer generated vision training programs Design specific visual motor drills (on field vs off field) Work closely with sports scientist/coaches to assess/train software parameters related to a specific sport

37 THANK YOU!


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