Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Click to edit Master text styles –Second level Click to edit Master text styles –Second level EMG COMPARISON OF TWO TYPES OF SNOW SHOVELS INTRODUCTION.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Click to edit Master text styles –Second level Click to edit Master text styles –Second level EMG COMPARISON OF TWO TYPES OF SNOW SHOVELS INTRODUCTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 Click to edit Master text styles –Second level Click to edit Master text styles –Second level EMG COMPARISON OF TWO TYPES OF SNOW SHOVELS INTRODUCTION HYPOTHESES & OBJECTIVES METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION 1 Ryan Lewinson, 1 D. Gordon E. Robertson & 2 Gholamreza Rouhi 1 School of Human Kinetics, 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada REFERENCES Snow shoveling is necessary in many areas of the world and has resulted in back pain and/or cardiac sudden arrest; even for healthy people. The bent-shaft shovel is designed to help reduce fatigue and back pain by allowing the individual to maintain a more upright posture [1]. For snow shoveling, only kinematic research exists [2,3]; electromyographic activity has not yet been reported. EMGs may help identify which shovel design is best suited for the reduction of low back pain. 1. The objectives of this study: Identify muscle recruitment patterns for snow shoveling. Compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity between straight-shaft and bent-shaft shovels (Fig. 1). 2. The hypotheses were: The bent-shaft shovel induces higher EMG activity in the erector spinae and biceps brachii muscles due to a larger moment of force (Fig. 2). The most efficient shovel in terms of EMG activity will also reduce heart rate. Fig. 2 – A larger moment is produced when using the bent-shaft shovel because the bent shaft makes it difficult to keep the load close to the body, thus increasing the moment arm. d 1 >d 2 Eight subjects (5M, 3F) shoveled continuously outdoors for 2 minutes; one trial with each shovel (Fig. 1), in random order. Fig. 1 – Bent-shaft (left) and straight- shaft (right) shovels 1. Subject post-test comments. - 7 out of 8 subjects preferred the straight-shaft shovel. - 5 out of 7 subjects said they felt their upper arms hurt more when using the bent-shaft shovel. - 2 of these 5 further stated that this lead them to use their backs more to compensate because their arms were tired. 2. Paired-samples t -test for iEMG and heart rate results. iEMGHR Anterior Deltoid Biceps Brachii Erector Spinae Gluteus Maximus Rectus Femoris Biceps Femoris Heart Rate (/min) Mean diff S.D p -value * * * Statistically significant at α=0.05 Table 1 - Mean difference values were obtained by calculating the difference in iEMG between shovel designs recorded for each subject, then calculating the means across subjects. Positive mean differences indicate that the bent-shaft shovel induced larger amounts of muscular activity, while negative values indicate the straight-shaft shovel induced more EMG activity. EMGs were recorded and integrated over time. Heart rate and lead knee angle were recorded (Fig. 3). iEMG differences were calculated (bent – straight). Differences compared by a paired-samples t -test (α=0.05). One subjects EMGs were ensemble averaged. Fig. 3 – EMG recorded from the anterior deltoid, biceps brachii, erector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris muscles (1000 gain, >110 CMRR) 1. Canadian Tire. Snow removal: snow shovels. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from Huang C, Paquet V. Kinematic evaluation of two snow-shovel designs. Int J Industrial Ergon 29 : , McGorry RW et al. The effect of technique and shaft configuration in snow shoveling. Appl Ergon 34: , duration of erector spinae contraction biceps femoris activity may cause more work at the low-back to compensate. bicep femoris activity Since this is a biarticular muscle, activity could result in less assistance in trunk extension. This could cause more work for the back. Biceps brachii fatigue over time bicep brachii activity Could be a result of the increased moment of force, as hypothesized. Could also be a compensation for increased work at the back caused by bicep femoris activity. Possible risk for low-back injury Fig. 5 – Combined results and possible outcomes from bent-shaft shovel use Fig. 4 – Knee angle begins and ends at its lowest (or bent-over) position. In the bent-shaft condition, erector spinae activation duration was longer than in the straight-shaft condition before maximum knee angle (standing position) was reached (46% cycle vs. 28% cycle). 3. Muscle recruitment patterns (ensemble averages). Bent-shaft shovel did not reduce low-back activity as marketed. Longer trials needed to allow biceps to fatigue. Use both types of shovels and take frequent breaks while shoveling. Balance muscular workload Allow HR to recover Bent-shaft shovel use For more information, please


Download ppt "Click to edit Master text styles –Second level Click to edit Master text styles –Second level EMG COMPARISON OF TWO TYPES OF SNOW SHOVELS INTRODUCTION."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google