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Migration and Child Labor in Nepal Dr. Bal Kumar KC 10 July 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Migration and Child Labor in Nepal Dr. Bal Kumar KC 10 July 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Migration and Child Labor in Nepal Dr. Bal Kumar KC 10 July 2012

2 1. Demographic scenario Nepals 2011 Census enumerated in June 2011 recorded 26.6 million population in Nepal with PGR 1.4, doubles in 50 years. Population below poverty line are 25%. TFR 2.6; rural TFR 2.8; urban TFR 1.4; IMR 46; CBR 25; CDR 6; MMR 229; CPR 49.8; Under 5 mortality rate 54. Life expectancy at birth 67 years, 68 years for females and 66 years for males. Prevalence of marriage among girls before 18 years. 20% of all births to women less than 20 years of age. About 37% percent young population less than 15 years may contribute to population growth and migration in the country.

3 1. Demographic scenario Figure 1.1: Population growth rate by district, 2011

4 Demographic scenario Cont… Figure 1.2: Average household size by district

5 Demographic scenario Cont… Figure 1.3: Population size and annual growth rate by census year

6 Demographic scenario Cont… High unemployment and underemployment rates of 38.8% accelerate the incidence of poverty and migration within and outside the country. Sex ratio decreased from 99.8 in 2001 to % urban and 83 % rural population. Migration from hills to the Tarai plains and urban areas for education, employment, health and social services. Increasing trend of Foreign labor migration. Population absent from home for more than six months and living abroad was 1.92 million, 2.5 times higher than in the 2001.

7 Demographic scenario Cont… Illiterate family members migrate inside the country. Richer households from the Hills migrate to urban areas in Nepal and to the Middle-East, Malaysia and other developed countries. Lack of employment is the most important reason for internal and international migration in Nepal. Migration of a bread winner increases work burden on women, children and elderly and children migrate to India as seasonal laborers. Adult seasonal laborers bring home HIV infections and transmit to their spouses.

8 Figure 1.4: Age Structure of Population by Broad Age Group, 1995/ /2011

9 Figure 1.5: Sex Ratio and Female Headed Household Heads, /2011

10 Literacy and Education Figure 2.1: Adult Literacy Rate, 1995/ /2011

11 2.2 Migration Data from Nepal Labor Force Survey, 2008 About 33% of the population had migrated to their current location either from another VDC or municipality or from a different country. The lifetime migration rate all females was 44%. Of this, 88% were internal migrants and 12% from abroad. The overall lifetime migration rate for males was 21%. Of this, 85 percent were internal migrants and 15 percent from abroad.. 80% of migration was from rural areas of Nepal, 7% from urban areas and 13% from abroad. Marriage was the reason for 48% of lifetime migrants, followed by 30% for family reasons and 8% for an easier lifestyle.

12 2. Migration Situation in Nepal About 15% of the total population was absent inside and outside Nepal in About 23% of the population aged 15 years and older was absent. 6% of less than 15 years of age were also absent from home in Out of the total absentees aged five years and above, 21% were studying and 51% working. About 29% of households had at least one member living abroad while 19% of households had at least one member absent from home but residing within the country.

13 2. Migration Situation in Nepal Cont… Foreign born, foreign citizens and absentees, 2001 Census Foreign born population increased by almost threefold from 23,400 in 1981 to 439,000 in 1991 and 608,094 in Out of this total foreign, almost 80 per cent have taken Nepalese citizenship. In case of emigration, those who were absent for more than six months going abroad were 762,181, out of which 589,050 were in India. The rest were destined to United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arab, Kuwait, Qatar, Malaysia, Japan, and Korea.

14 Figure 2.1: Absent population by eco-region, 2011

15 Figure 2.2: Trends in poverty incidence for Nepal, Note: Red scenario has the absolute poverty levels as 42, 31.5 and 13, whereas the blue scenario has 63, 49 and 25.4.

16 3.1: Poverty Trend in Nepal, 1995/96, 2003/04 and 2010/11 Poverty increases with household size, number of kids under 7, female headed households, agricultural wage workers, and being Dalits. Poverty decreases with higher level of education, professional wage workers, households with more than 1 hectare of agricultural land and access to facilities.

17 Figure 3.1: Poverty Mapping

18 Figure 3.3: Poverty, literacy and attendance in private school/college, 1995/ /2011

19 Table 4.1: Countries receiving largest number of Nepalese labor migrants,1992/ /1968 Countries of destination TotalMalesFemales Malaysia (32.5%) Qatar (28.1%) Saudi Arab (19.8%) UAE (12.4%) Bahrain35812 (1.7%) Kuwait31043 (1.5%) Total (96%) Total for all (1000%) (98.4%) (1.6%) Total absent 2011 census (100%) (86.7%) (13.3%) 4: Foreign Labor Migration

20 Figure 4.1: Nepalese Foreign Labor Migrants, FY 2006/2007-FY 2009/2010

21 Figure 4.2: Remittance (Rs. Billion) in Nepal by destination, 1995/ /2011

22 Sample Size Total Population of Children 5-14 years (in thousands) Schooling only Working and schooling and working only with no schooling Working and schooling Working only (no schooling) Idle (doing nothing) Child Labor Survey, , (100%) 2287 (36.7%) 2596 (41.6%) 1587 (25.5) 1004 (16.1%) 928 (15%) Nepal Labor Force Survey I, 1998/ ,33547%41%26%15%12% Nepal Labor Force Survey II, , (33.9%) Nepal Living Standards Survey III, 2010/2011 7, %52.5%41.8%38%3.8%5.7% Table 5.1: Comparison of the Incidence of Child Labor in three Major Surveys

23 Child population: 6,225,000 Working Children: 2,596,000 (41.7%) Economically Active: 1,660,000 (26.7%) Wage Child Labor: 279,000 (4.5%) Worst Forms of Child Labor: 127,000 (2.0%) 180,000 (2.9%) Figure 5.1: Estimates of Child Labor in Nepal

24 Figure 5.2: Summary of Child Labor Situation in Nepal Total Children (5-14 years) 6,225,000 Working (Irrespective of school attendance) 2,596,000 (41.6%) Working and Schooling 1,587,000 (25.5%) Working Only No Schooling 1,004,000 (16.1%) Schooling Only 2,287,000 (36.7%) Idle (Doing nothing or not stated) 1,342 (21.7%) Economic 987,000 (15.9%) Non-Economic 331,000 (5.3%) Economic 673,000 (10.8%) Non-Economic 597,000 (9.6%) Paid 124,000 (2.0%) Not Paid 519,000 (8.3%) Paid 155,000 (2.5%) Not Paid 864,000 (13.9%)


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