Presentation on theme: "Safety analYsIs of a pool Genesis II irradiator"— Presentation transcript:
1Safety analYsIs of a pool Genesis II irradiator Ary de A. Rodrigues Junior Departamento de Física da Universidade Estadual de MaringáENAN/INAC27nov2011Belo Horizonte - Brazil
2Category III gamma irradiator Self-contained irradiatorThe sealed source (usually Co-60) is kept in a water filled storage poolIt is shielded uninterruptedlyThe material has to move down toward the shielded sourceThe Genesis II Irradiator manufactured by GRAY*STAR Inc. (USA) belongs to this category of irradiator
3Genesis II Irradiator manufactured by GRAY*STAR Inc. (USA)
5What would happen if the water level lowered? First: the pool conception:Two pre-fabricated rectangular steel tanks.The inner stainless steel tank is positioned within a larger outer steel tank.The six-inch space between the tanks is filled with concreteThis method increases the safety against radioactive and water leakage beyond Specific Safety Guide No. 8 recommendation, item 8.77Most probable cause of loss of water: by evaporation
6Water level marks of the inner tank The normal level operation is 0B
7Conservative conditions adopted: Co-60 source was considered punctiform (its real size is 1.7 m high x 2 m wide)In the middle of the source plan.Activity of 37 PBq (1 MCi). The manufacturer recommendation is up to 18.5 PBq (500 kCi); over this limit, there will be loss of efficiency.There was no bell inside the pool.The radiation attenuation by pencils, source holders, plenum, pool guard and other structures were not considered.The water was in the minimum level, below the normal level operation, which is 0B.
8Side view of tank showing the considered punctiform source localization (in the middle of source plan) and the reference point P, 0.5 m above the tank edge.
9The equation used to calculate the dose rate H = equivalent dose rate at P = mSv m2/GBq for Co-60A = Co-60 activity source in GBq, in this case 3.7 x 107 GBq (1 MCi)R = distance (m) between the punctiform source and PB = Build-up factor of the medium in which the source is in, in this case: water/ = mass attenuation coefficient for photons of 1 MeV = cm2/gd = medium density, for water = 1 g/cm3L = distance (cm) between the punctiform source and P inside the attenuation material (water)
10Calculation of “R” by trigonometry: R2 = (5.1 m)2 + (1.2 m)2 ≈ 27.5 m2 or R = 5.2 mCalculation of Buildup by Taylor: B (L) = A1.e-α1L + (1-A1). e-α2LFor water and photons of 1 MeV:A1: ; -α1 = ; α2 = = linear attenuation coefficient = cm-1L = mean free path = xLL = distance between the punctiform source and the point P inside the attenuation material (cm), in this case: water
12H = 0.6 x 10-6mSv/h = 1.4 x 10-5 mSv/Day = 0.005mSv/year =5Sv/year SAFETY ANALYSISThe water at minimum level markL calculus: L2 = (4.6 m)2 + (4.6/tan m)2 or L = 4.73 m = 473 cmTan = 5.1/1.2 = 4.25Buildup: B = 357H = 0.6 x 10-6mSv/h = 1.4 x mSv/Day = 0.005mSv/year =5Sv/yearBackground level of natural radiation is 2.4 mSv/year (2400 Sv/year )The operator has to maintain manually the water level at 0B mark.
13The water 0.5 m below the minimum level mark L calculus: L2 = (4.1 m)2 + (4.1/tan m)2 or L = 4.21 m = 421 cmBuildup: B = 249H = 1.46 x 10-5mSv/h = 3.5 x mSv/day = 0.13mSv/yearAgain below the background level of 2.4 mSv/yearThe make-up automated system will replace the water up to 0B mark.
14The water 1 m below the minimum level mark L calculus: L2 = (3.6 m)2 + (3.6/tan m)2 or L = 3.70 m = 370 cmBuildup: B = 172H = 3.78 x 10-4mSv/h = 9.07 x mSv/day = 3.31mSv/yearFor workers in nuclear areas: 2000 h per year = 0.8 mSv/year Again, this is below the background level of 2.4 mSv/year.
15The water 1.5 m below the minimum level mark L calculus: L2 = (3.1 m)2 + (3.1/tan m)2 or L = 3.18 m = 318 cmBuildup: B = 117H = 9.65 x 10-3mSv/h = 0.23 mSv/day = 84.5mSv/yearFor 2000 h per year: H = 19.3 mSv/year Occupational exposure limit for the whole body: 20mSv/year (averaged over five consecutive years or 50 mSv, in one single year)
16The water 2 m below the minimum level mark L calculus: L2 = (2.6 m)2 + (2.6/tan m)2 or L = 2.67 m = 267 cmBuildup: B = 78H = 0.24mSv/h = 5.76 mSv/day = 2102mSv/yearFor 2000 h per year: H = 480 mSv/yearThe trigger level of area monitors above the tank and at the deionizer system is mSv/h alerting the operators and radiation protection office before the water reaches the water level in question
17Summary Water level mSv/h mSv/day mSv/year mSv/2000h Minimuma XXXXXX 0.005- 0.5 mb1.46 x 10-53.5 x 10-40.13- 1 mb3.78 x 10-49.07 x 10-33.310.8- 1.5 mb9.65 x 10-30.2384.519.3- 2 mb,c0.245.762102480a: The operator maintains the water level at 0B mark manually.b: The automated system will replace the water up to 0B mark.c: Area monitors will warn (trigger level in 10Sv/h or 10x 10-3 mSv/h), alerting operators and radiation protection officers
18DISCUSSIONBecause of Genesis II Irradiator pool conception of three barriers:Inner stainless steel tankconcrete layer andouter steel tank,The probability of losing water by leakage is negligibleThe loss of water will be by evaporationThis water level reducing process would not be detected by diary checklists.
19Nevertheless,The failure of the make-up automated systemThe risk of area monitors to fail plusThe occurrence of a worker to remain at the edge of the tank for a long timeWithout noticing anything wrongWould be an exceptionally improbable situation
20ConclusionMoreover, periodic maintenance, “from cradle to grave”, will detect any abnormality in the beginning of the process and will trigger actions to mitigate the situation.The risk of workers be exposed to accidental doses beyond security levels owing to the reduction of the water volume is negligibleThank you