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International Relations Unit 4 Notes. “A New Age” 1913-1921 WWI, or The Great War, had enormous physiological and economic consequences for people and.

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Presentation on theme: "International Relations Unit 4 Notes. “A New Age” 1913-1921 WWI, or The Great War, had enormous physiological and economic consequences for people and."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Relations Unit 4 Notes

2 “A New Age” 1913-1921 WWI, or The Great War, had enormous physiological and economic consequences for people and societies First war involving many of the new industrial technology, with old time warfare Shaped the outbreak of revolutionary challenges that set off an era of conflict the rest of the century Forever changed the face of international relations

3 Woodrow Wilson Became president in 1912 mainly due to conflicts between incumbent Taft and Theodore Roosevelt Had a national reputation for his writing and speeches A religious individual which gave a special fervor to his sense of personal and national destiny

4 Woodrow Wilson (Con’t) Greatest flaws were his difficulty working with strong people and, once his mind was made up, a reluctance to hear dissenting views Suffered from culture-blindness and little experience in diplomacy Disavowed gun-boat diplomacy in Latin America However inadvertently paints himself a hypocrite

5 Woodrow Wilson (Con’t) Believed foreign policy should serve broad human concerns rather than narrow selfish interests America’s power put it in a position to promote its ideals Fought along side Britain for disarmament and removal of trade barriers with Japan and Germany

6 Woodrow Wilson (Con’t) Expanded presidential authority even beyond Theodore Roosevelt’s precedents Made decisions without consulting much of the State Department Named William Jennings Bryan his Secretary of State Much more qualified than Wilson to Shape foreign Policy However believed that Christian beliefs should animate foreign policy Worked most of his Presidency on developing an internationalist foreign policy

7 Dealing with Revolutions Traditionally, the U.S. had sympathized with revolutions in principle, until they turned violent In Dealing with Chinese and Mexican revolutions, Wilson sympathized with the forces of revolution Failed to recognize that in seeking to direct the future of these nations he limited their ability to work out their own destiny

8 China Optimistically supported the Chinese revolution, however did not understand revolution leaders sought to advance their own power rather than build a modern state Wilson also hoped to check European and Japanese interests in East Asia Japan drove the Germans from the Shandong province of China Creating issues later during the Great War U.S. was able to check other nations interest, however did little to gain support from Chinese people

9 Latin America The Growing U.S. economic and diplomatic presence had further destabilized an already volatile region U.S. had the power and willingness to use it to contain revolutions and maintain hegemony over small, weak states who people were deemed inferior

10 Latin America (Con’t) Wilson had denounced Taft’s dollar diplomacy and military interventionism and talked of treating Latin America’s on “equal terms” They assumed that U.S. help would be welcomed When it wasn’t welcomed, they fell back on diplomatic and military force Through all his rhetoric of “equal treatment,” Wilson continued to use military intervention throughout Latin America Placed Haiti under military occupation greatly hurting U.S. record in Latin America

11 Mexico Starting in 1911 Revolution in Mexico was extremely complex A rebellion of middle and lower classes against a deeply entrenched old order and foreigners who dominated the nation’s economy followed by an extended civil war Wilson sought to undermine Madero, who had come to power through revolution Jefferson had set the precedent of recognizing any government formed by the will of the nation

12 Mexico Starting in 1911 (Con’t) Wilson introduced a moral and political test after Huerta overthrew Madero in 1913 Through political maneuvering, Huerta able to maintain power and Wilson began to push military threats and incursions to push Huerta out of office Only helped Huerta and other Mexican rebels to rally Mexican citizens to the banner of nationalism Using morality, U.S. began building infrastructure for Mexican citizens, however it did not leave a lasting impact

13 Mexico Starting in 1911 (Con’t) After Carranza took power in 1914, Wilson continued to push U.S. involvement in mediations between factions in Mexico After Pancho Villa murdered engineers in U.S., he fled and avoided John J. Pershing’s militia U.S. also mobilized forces along border, only increasing Mexican nationalism and hurting U.S. image across Latin America

14 The Great War Dominated President Wilson and eventually destroying him political and even physically Europe was threatened by each other due to their fears and suspicions Manifested into a complex and rigid system of alliances, an arms race, and war plans design to secure an early victory Both sides believed a quick victory was imminent The industrial revolution and the capacity of the modern nation-state to mobilize vast human and material resources produced unprecedented destructiveness and cost

15 The Great War (Con’t) Started after the death of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in June of 1914 Though truly an isolated event, it was magnified due to alliances and treaties that engulfed all of Europe In August of 1914 Germany pushed to within 30 miles of Paris But were pushed back to the Eastern boundary of France by November and remained there until 1917 Trench warfare

16 U.S Impression of Great War Americans were shocked by the start of the war Wilson sought to maintain neutrality for several reasons Diversity of U.S. could split the country The seeming remoteness of the conflict gave it advantages of trading with both sides Also could provide relief assistance to war torn areas

17 U.S Impression of Great War (Con’t) Emergence as a world power made it extremely problematic Emotional and cultural ties to Allies made it difficult to remain impartial The U.S. military power would be decisive factor in conflict Balancing both sides for demands for trading with the enemy

18 Inconsistency During War British blockade of Northern Europe met minimum complaints from Wilson early in the war Same maneuver Union used in American Civil War U.S. likely viewed trade with Germany not as important as conflict with British Very pragmatic approach Wilson however took a firm response to Germany’s use of U-Boats Considered the U-Boats as a violation of international laws

19 Inconsistency During War (Con’t) Sinking of the Lusitania by a German U-Boat had major impact within U.S. Brought the war to the U.S. citizen as 128 U.S. citizens were killed in the attack Wilson demanded the end of U-Boat activities and a warning on any further attacks on unarmed vessels Later it was determined that the Lusitania had weapons on board Wilson’s actions pushed Bryan to resign from Secretary of State due to contradictory actions between treatment of Germany and Britain by U.S. Taking away an important dissenting voice from Wilson’s cabinet

20 Inconsistency During War (Con’t) Robert Lansing, new Secretary of State, and Wilson demanded an end to submarine warfare, or else the U.S. would break diplomatic relations A general step towards war U.S. began pushing for renewed military training and “reasonable” increases in the armed services

21 Collective Security With the onset of war in Europe, Wilson sought to use the opportunity to push for the formation of a league of nations Would be used to modify international law and use arbitration to resolve disputes Wilson adamantly believed that this type of league could have helped avoid WWI Believed that peace was essential to ensure advancement of domestic reforms Eliminating the arms race and economic causes of war Use of Sanctions to deter and punish aggression Use the “Concert of Nations” to replace the balance of power

22 Collective Security (Con’t) Wilson pushed both sides during 1914-1917 to have peace without victory, through the development arbitration Of course the U.S. leading the way through the negotiations However, U.S. did not understand the great bitterness developing between nations due to the costs of the Great War By 1917 though none of the countries involved in the war were willing to compromise for peace

23 Isolationism V. Internationalist Isolationist Preserve America’s long-standing tradition of non-involvement as a way of safeguarding the nation’s way of life Became firmly implanted in the nation’s political vocabulary during the Great War

24 Isolationism V. Internationalist (Con’t) Internationalist Believed that their nation must play a key role developing a new world power Give equality to nations great and small and avoid wars like The Great War During this time period constant battles between the two different foreign policy directions

25 US Involvement Towards the end of 1916, Germany began determining that the an all-out submarine campaign could win the war before the U.S. intervention had any effect By February of 1917 Germany had pushed U.S. to break relations between the two countries Wilson still had not developed a war message Campaign almost succeed, until a year later when nearly a million U.S. troops were in Europe, demoralizing German troops

26 US Involvement (Con’t) By mid-March events had greatly changed Britain had released the “Zimmerman Telegram” Revealed that Germany had offered Mexico an alliance in return for conquered land in U.S. Three U.S. merchant vessels had been destroyed by German U-Boats

27 US Involvement (Con’t) Wilson was thus was forced into asking for a declaration of war It would allow U.S. to be part of negotiations, which could be used to develop a postwar order He believed that the Great War had been created due to the “Old World Order” and that a League of Nations would prohibit such future wars His speech to Congress set extremely lofty goals and eventually disillusionment about U.S. power Yet he formulated and articulated a set of principles that would influence U.S. foreign policy and world politics for years to come

28 US Involvement (Con’t) Fourteen Points Public statement of 1918 that Wilson sought for a peace program Most notably he insisted that in dealing with colonial claims the “interests” of colonial peoples should be taken into account Eventually became known as self-determination Used international media to spread his views and speeches During the war he pushed his military leaders to cooperate with British and French leaders to give a solid basis for postwar collaboration However maintained freedom of action

29 Bolshevik Revolution Lenin helped lead the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia Called for the end of capitalism and pushed for communism Wilson greatly distrusted Lenin and believed Lenin did not represent the Russian people Supported the opposition group however was not willing to be pulled into another “Mexico Situation”

30 America’s Moment By late summer and early fall of 1918, U.S. forced were able to help push the German’s back to the Hindenburg Line As negotiations began towards ending the Great War, the nations struggled to determine the extent that Germany deserved to be punished Wilson sought to develop the “Concert of Nations” through the negotiations Even personally attending the peace conference in 1919, first ever by a sitting President Also Wilson hoped to formulate the “Fourteen Points” into the treaty Including freedom among nationalities and oppressed peoples across the world

31 Lofty Yet Unachievable Goals Wilson mainly depended upon himself during the peace negotiations Overestimated the leverage the U.S. would have in dealing with the Allied counterparts Took a tour throughout Europe, with crowds cheering his speeches Assumed then that there was great European support for a League of Nations

32 Lofty Yet Unachievable Goals (Con’t) Due to his push for League of Nations, France and Britain used it to achieve many of their own ambitions Developed a mandate system that was annexation in disguise Development of new nations as buffers throughout Europe and Middle East paid little attention to rival ethnic groups Negotiations generally on focused on European issues Greatly discrediting Wilson throughout the world as a hypocrite

33 League of Nations Concessions Wilson believed that concessions had to be given in order to attain the goal of a League Article X provided that member nations would “respect and preserve as against external aggression the political integrity and existing political independence of all Members in the League”

34 League of Nations Concessions (Con’t) Wilson viewed Article X as the linchpin to the concert of nations, however it created great deals of protests Viewed as an abandonment of his original “Fourteen Points” Treaty eventually signed in Versailles in 1919

35 Debate in U.S. Wilson went throughout the U.S. seeking to gain support for the treaty However, the years leading up, he had done little to gain bipartisan support Also had a stroke during the tour, leaving him partially incapacitated for sometime

36 Debate in U.S. (Con’t) Many struggled with what they viewed was that Wilsons League would surrender U.S. sovereignty to a world body Surprising numbers supported a League of some type, however, one that was generally very weak After his stroke, Wilson seemed unwilling to compromise, ultimately forcing the defeat of his League of Nations treaty Wilson articulated a set of principles that in various forms would guide U.S. foreign policy for years to come

37 “Involvement Without Commitment” 1921-1931 Though considered by many as an isolationist era, the U.S. vigorously promoted its interests while scrupulously guarding against entanglements Did not embrace Wilsonian collective security agreements Did continue to use peace and economic pressures to achieve their foreign policy goals

38 Instability of Europe The European continent had suffered incalculable destruction from the war Many nations maintained strong hatred for each other Ideologies of the extreme right and left gained numerous adherents Germany remained potentially a great power Treaty of Versailles saddled the country with substantial reparations Leaving great resentment and frustrations France and Great Britain sought to use the reparations on Germany, to keep them from regaining strength

39 Instability of Europe (Con’t) Central and Eastern European countries struggled to establish themselves Diverse ethnicities within the newly created nations created conflict and allowing great power interference Shift of the center of world financial power from London to New York U.S became the leading lender for much of Europe

40 Self-Determination Wilson and Lenin’s calls for self- determination, along with the Great War, accelerated the nationalist revolts that would begin after WWII The use of the colonies for supporting war, while giving them very little in return Rhetoric of self-determination encouraged local nationalisms, and the obvious weakening of the European powers spurred thoughts of revolt Brutal repression of postwar revolts exposed as sham the Europeans talk of justice, further boosted nationalism

41 Continued Growth of U.S. Power Largest agricultural and manufacturing producer during the 1920’s More industrial output than the next six powers combined Militarily continued to remain adequate, not dominating However the world’s largest navy

42 Continued Growth of U.S. Power (Con’t) Began using “Soft Power” Global influence deriving from its economic might, technological superiority and cultural sway Standard of Living the envy of the world Became a center of mass culture Spreading of American way of life and selling U.S. products

43 Continued Growth of U.S. Power (Con’t) The war and Wilsonianism boosted popular interest in the outside world Large number of missionaries went abroad to spread the Gospel and American values Set up schools and hospitals around the world

44 Continued Growth of U.S. Power (Con’t) Number international groups in U.S. doubled from 1916-1921 Organization of Council on Foreign Relations Stressed internationalism Establishment that would shape U.S. foreign policy through much of the 20th Century During the 1920’s, the President’s generally inactive with foreign policy Leaving the Secretaries of State to conduct foreign policy Congress was more assertive in foreign policy in the 1920’s

45 The Business of America is Business America’s new creditor status opened promising opportunities and imposed urgent responsibilities Voraciously devoured the world’s resources Overseas trade and investments were important to American prosperity Many still believed that the spread of liberal capitalism would help promote a stable and prosperous world order by improving standard of living U.S. sought to modernize “backward” areas

46 The Business of America is Business (Con’) President Hoover’s administration vigorously sought out foreign trade and lending Primarily pushed the private sectors to do the negotiations A trend highly used during the 1920’s Many companies began using direct investments abroad They would often cut favorable deals with friendly local governments Many would end up wielding enormous political power Also exploited curial raw materials

47 The Business of America is Business (Con’) U.S. continued to have high tariffs to protect American companies Brought about unprecedented U.S. involvement in the world and fueled a short-term prosperity Desire to maintain low domestic taxes did not allow forgiveness of European debts Continued high tariffs discouraged trade Bankers self interest over government foreign policy interests

48 U.S. “Isolationism” U.S. unwillingness to sit on the League of Nations court due to stipulations Wanted to prevent the Court from giving advisory opinions on matters in which the U.S. claimed an interest Unilateralism met strong opposition from other members of the International court

49 U.S. “Isolationism” (Con’t) Yet U.S. assumed unprecedented leadership in promoting international arms limitations Signed the Five-Power Treaty in 1922 Joined nations on limiting the size of certain navy boats Japanese government activity involved in order to promote cooperation with the West without sacrificing vital interests in Manchuria Included agreement to abstain from affairs not involving the other countries

50 U.S. “Isolationism” (Con’t) Also signed the Nine-Power Treaty, in order to try and stabilize the power competition in China Yet it did little because it called on each country to “respect China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity” Both Five and Nine-Power Treaties were highly criticized after WWII, because the agreements lacked enforcement provisions and were therefore essentially worthless Also the U.S. was the only country to adhere to limitations Looking back, the agreements stabilized a dangerous arms race and dramatically eased great-power tensions

51 European Reconstruction U.S. played a key role because they were keenly aware of the importance of a stable, prosperous Europe to America’s economic and political well-being Europe had been devastated by WWI Due to domestic political constraints, Republicans had to rely on economic rather than political methods Also used unofficial and private emissaries to negotiate and implement solutions

52 European Reconstruction (Con’t) European problems were monumental Germans were angry at the victor’s peace imposed on them France sought to use economic pressures to keep Germany at heel Issues of Reparations created a hotbed of issues France sought full payment to keep Germany weak and under control Germany believed it far exceeded its ability to pay

53 European Reconstruction (Con’t) Big issue for U.S. was “how to assert a helpful influence abroad without sacrificing anything of importance to our people.” Ultimately Britain and U.S. were able to create a settlement that set a precedent for further Anglo-American cooperation

54 Dawes Plan 1924 U.S. tried to stay out of the Germany- France arguments France, frustrated at Germany’s unwillingness to pay reparations, seized the coal mines and extended it’s area of occupation to the Ruhr Devastated both German and French economies Secretary Hughes then stepped in, in order to avert “utter economic chaos” Sought to have an independent commission work out a compromise

55 Dawes Plan 1924 (Con’t) Independent commission had the task of creating a settlement that satisfied allied concerns, yet soft enough to be accepted by Germany The settlement called for the payments by Germans to be increased as the economic activity increased American’s strong armed both Germany and France to accept the agreement

56 Dawes Plan 1924 (Con’t) By 1925 another agreement between France, Belgium, and Germany called for respect of boundaries and to keep the Rhineland demilitarized These actions provided for some hope for European recovery and stability U.S. was able to renegotiate the European loans U.S. viewed the renegotiated loans as generous Many Europeans viewed it as U.S. trying to “enslave a whole continent”

57 Consequences of Dawes Plan U.S. believed that economic recovery of Germany would bring about stability and peace throughout Europe While keeping the U.S. taxpayer from paying the bill U.S. did not understand the full extent of the war’s impact on Europe or the real depth of resentments it stirred Also the U.S. did not recognize the advantage of Germany at France’s expense

58 Consequences of Dawes Plan (Con’t) U.S. played an even less significant role in reconstruction of Eastern Europe Wilson used rhetoric of assistance, yet neither side seemed eager to commit together Eastern Europeans wanted the U.S. money and protection without interference U.S. wanted new investment capital and new markets for their products without political involvement

59 Poland Considered the “nutcracker” of Russia and Germany made Poland an issue Americans could not ignore Polish American voters also increased Poland’s significance to U.S. government Yet U.S. did not meet Poland’s need for security from bigger neighbors, or generosity of U.S. loans Harding and Coolidge administrations avoided entanglement on the border dispute between Poland and Germany Mainly relied on private sector to develop and implements programs Poles, like other Eastern Europeans, looked suspiciously on foreign capital

60 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia When the Bolshevik’s took power, with Lenin, in 1917 the U.S. refused to recognize the revolutionary government Using Huerta’s Mexico as precedent Came to power through force, thus not representing the Russian people When Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI in 1918, U.S. frustration only increased American hoped non-recognition and Allied military interventions would topple the hated Bolshevik government or cause it to collapse under its own weight Later changed to become part of U.S. “Containment Policy” in the 1950-80’s

61 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (Con’t) Yet the Bolshevik government did not collapse Communism position on fundamental beliefs such as religion and private property made it the anathema to many Americans Communist International, supported by Lenin, sought to overthrow other governments Only reinforcing U.S. fears

62 U.S.-Soviet Economic Ties U.S. did engage economically, hoping to teach the wonders of capitalism However it only helped preserve the Soviet state Presidential Administrations were leery to participate with Soviets, yet were deeply committed to the expansion of American trade and investment Most investments in Russia were unprofitable due to Russian restrictions and control

63 U.S.-Soviet Economic Ties (Con’t) American technical expertise was crucial to Stalin’s Five-Year Plan, adopted in 1928 U.S. Engineers built factories and plants within Russia Helped stabilize economics within Russia, thus allowing political stability

64 East Asia America sought to establish a “Pax Americana maintained not by arms but by mutual respect and good will and the tranquilizing process of reason” U.S. officials hoped that trade and loans would promote peace Japanese Relations was greatly improved by U.S. generosity after earthquake in 1923 in Japan Goodwill destroyed by legislation Congress passed restricting all Japanese from immigrating to U.S. Provoked an outburst of Anti-Americanism in Japan

65 East Asia (Con’t) Chinese nationalism the biggest challenge for U.S. design of peace and order in East Asia China broke into civil war with different factions seeking political power Kuomintang Party sought power, initially supported by the Soviet Union created an anti-imperialism mood Ultimately Kuomintang Party leader Chiang Kai-Shek split from the Soviet’s and sought U.S. support Showed that Gunboat diplomacy was out of fashion by the 1920’s

66 Shift in policy by 1920’s U.S. began moving away from the gunboat diplomacy and military interventionism of previous decades Began demands for U.S. to actually following through with allowing Latin American self-determination Yet, determining stability around the canal as vital, U.S. sought ways to maintain order and protection Use of loans to stabilize Latin Economies Promoted dependency U.S. foreign trade and capital and over-borrowing

67 Shift in policy by 1920’s (Con’t) Also sought to amend ills from previous years Paid nearly $25 Million for Panama Canal Change in Monroe Doctrine Henry Clay began giving speeches in 1923 asserting: U.S. “asserts no rights for ourselves that we do not accord to others” limited intervention to the region near the canal and vowed use would be “last resort”

68 Shift in policy by 1920’s (Con’t) Began changing protectorates throughout Latin America Still not allowing full self-determination Dominican Republic was allowed to create a legislature Allowed the rise of a dictator, who respected U.S. interests Enabled U.S. to reconcile its conflicting interests in Latin America

69 Passage of the Kellogg-Briand Pact Outlawed war as an instrument of national policy French Foreign Minister capitalized on the surge of goodwill over Lindbergh’s trans- Atlantic flight Main purpose was to serve as a deterrent to Germany Ultimately becomes the Pact of Paris which included nearly 15 nations Yet lacked true enforcement provisions Reinforced American “Power”

70 Great Depression Not only destroyed the Hoover Administration, weakened U.S. foreign policy used by Republicans Use of loans and trade as leverage U.S. protectionism, though good intentioned, provoked huge resentment abroad and retaliation


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