Chapter 4 Review Plate Tectonics A winning effort begins with preparation. Joe Gibbs Joe Gibbs
Plate Tectonics Geologist obtain information about the interior of Earth by what methods? What are seismic waves? What are the layers of Earth’s interior, from the outside to the center? Direct – by drilling holes and by studying rocks Indirect – by studying seismic waves (their speed and their path) Seismic waves are the energy released by an earthquake. Crust, mantle, outer core and inner core.
Plate Tectonics Earth’s inner core is made of what metals? Is Earth’s outer core a solid or a liquid layer? According to Scientists, what causes Earth’s magnetic field? Primarily nickel and iron Liquid The movement of the solid inner core in the liquid outer core
Plate Tectonics The three types of heat transfer are: Conduction – between materials that are touching Radiation – through open space Convection – by the movement of currents within a fluid (gas or liquid)
Plate Tectonics What is Pangaea? Who was the scientist that hypothesized about Pangaea? What evidence did Wegener use for his theory? Pangaea is a supercontinent that existed millions of years ago. Alfred Wegener Land features, fossils, and evidence of climate change
Plate Tectonics What is the theory of continental drift? What is a fossil? What is sonar? The continents drifted together millions of years ago and have since drifted apart. Any trace of an organism that has been preserved in a rock A devise that bounces sound waves off underwater objects and then records the echoes.
Plate Tectonics What is a mid-ocean ridge? What is sea-floor spreading? An undersea mountain chain that is part of a long system of mountains beneath Earth’s oceans. Sea-floor spreading is a process that adds new material to the ocean floor. It happens at mid-ocean ridges.
Plate Tectonics What evidence exists to explain sea-floor spreading? Where does subduction occur? Eruptions of molten material, magnetic stripes in the rock of the ocean floor, and the ages of rocks themselves. At deep-ocean trenches
Plate Tectonics Which theory explains the formation, movement, and subduction of Earth’s plates? What are Earth’s plates? The theory of plate tectonics Sections of the lithosphere that slowly move over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust.
Plate Tectonics What are the three types of plate boundaries? Spreading (divergent) Colliding (convergent) Sliding (transform)