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**CE 4228 Data Communications and Networking**

Transmission Systems

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**Transmission Systems – Outline**

Analog and digital Data Signals Transmissions Transmission impairments

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**Transmission Systems Transmission media Transmission techniques**

Evolution of transmission systems Microprocessor 10 MHz in 1980s 1 GHz in 2000s Communications 56 kbps of ARPANET in 1980s 10 Gbps in 2000s

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**Data – Analog and Digital**

Continuous values within some interval Sound, video Use bandwidth as a key figure Digital Discrete values Text, integers Use data rate as a key figure

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**Signals – Analog and Digital**

Means by which data are propagated Analog Continuously variable Various media Wire, fiber optics, space Speech bandwidth 100 Hz to 7 kHz Telephone bandwidth 300 Hz to 3400 Hz Video bandwidth 6 MHz Digital Use two DC components

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**Signals – Digital Cheaper Less susceptible to noise**

Greater attenuation Pulses become rounded and smaller Lead to loss of information

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**Signals – Relationship with Data**

Usually use digital signals for digital data and analog signals for analog data Can use analog signal to carry digital data Modem Can use digital signal to carry analog data Compact disc audio

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Signals – Analog

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Signals – Digital

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**Transmissions – Analog**

Analog signals transmitted without regard to content May be analog or digital data Attenuated over distance Use amplifiers to boost signal Noise is also amplified

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**Transmissions – Digital**

Concerned with content Integrity endangered by noise, attenuation, etc. Repeaters used Repeater receives signal Bits extracted from the received signal Signal is regenerated from the bits and transmitted Attenuation is overcome Noise is not amplified

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**Transmissions – Digital**

Digital technology Low cost VLSI technology Data integrity Longer distances over lower quality lines Capacity utilization High bandwidth links economical High degree of multiplexing easier with digital techniques Security & privacy Storage Synchronization

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**Transmission Impairments**

Received signals may differ from transmitted signals Degradation of signal quality in analog Bit errors in digital Systematic distortions Attenuation and attenuation distortion Delay distortion Fortuitous distortions Noise

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**Attenuation Signal strength falls off with distance Depend on medium**

Received signal strength Must be enough to be detected Must be sufficiently higher than noise to be received without error When attenuation is a function of frequency, it is called attenuation distortion

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**Attenuation – Channel Channel example PT = 5 W, PR = 5 mW**

L = 1000, or equivalently, G = 1/1000 Transmitted signal power = PT Received signal power = PR Channel Power loss = L = PT / PR > 1 Power gain = G = PR / PT < 1

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**Attenuation – Amplifier**

Amplifier example PI = 5 mW, PO = 0.5 W G = 100, or equivalently, L = 1/100 Input signal power = PI Output signal power = PO Amplifier Power gain = G = PO / PI > 1 Power loss = L = PI / PO < 1

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**Attenuation – Wire-Line**

For wire-line channels Coax, twisted-pair, fiber, etc. L = d d = transmission distance = attenuation coefficient determined by medium and signal frequency

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**Attenuation – Wireless**

For wireless channels with line-of-sight Radio, infrared, etc. L = d2 L = d, 0<<5, without line-of-sight d = transmission distance = a coefficient depending on signal frequency = attenuation coefficient determined by medium and signal frequency Signal attenuates more severely in wire-line media than in wireless media

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**Attenuation – Decibel Convention**

The exponential form of transmission loss makes logarithm a convenient function to simplify its application In decibels, power gain and loss are defined as LdB = 10 log10 L dB GdB = 10 log10 G dB Channel example L = 1000 LdB = 10 log10 L = 30 dB A 30 dB power loss Amplifier example G = 100 GdB = 10 log10 G = 20 dB A 20 dB power gain

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**Attenuation – Decibel Convention**

A power gain of 1 is a power gain of 0 dB G = 1 → GdB = 0 dB A power loss of 30 dB is a power gain of −30 dB 10 log = 30 dB and 10 log10 (1/1000) = −30 dB The wire-line attenuation is LdB = 8.68d dB d is the transmission distance is conventionally expressed in dB/m, dB/km

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**Delay Distortion Propagation velocity varies with frequency**

Different frequency components will reach the destination at different time even they were transmitted at the same time Appear as phase shift in frequency domain

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**Linear Distortion Linear distortionless system/channel/device**

Power gain/loss is constant for all frequency components Time delay is constant for all frequency components within the signal band Linear distortion Frequency components of the signal are unequally treated

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**Linear Distortion – Equalization**

The equalizer is designed such that the total response is linear distortionless Linear Distortion System Equalizer

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**Non-Linear Distortion**

Non-linear distortionless Power gain/loss is constant regardless of the input signal power level Non-linear distortion Power gain/loss varies with the signal strength To avoid non-linear distortion, input signals must be suppressed to ensure that they are within the linear operating range of the channel or system

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**Noise Additional signals inserted between transmitters and receivers**

Noise is generated throughout the communication systems

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**Noise Thermal noise Intermodulation noise**

Due to thermal agitation of electrons Uniformly distributed, white noise Always exist, cannot be eliminated Have to live with it Use strong signal Intermodulation noise Signals that are the sum and difference of original frequencies sharing a medium Caused by nonlinearity

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**Noise Crosstalk Impulse noise**

A signal from one line is picked up by another Less effect than thermal noise Impulse noise Irregular pulses or spikes External electromagnetic interference Short duration High amplitude Primary source of error in digital communications Less effect on low speed transmissions

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**SNR Signal-to-noise ratio SNR = S/N = signal power noise power**

SNRdB= 10 log10 (PS/PN) Reception quality is determined by the SNR Figure of merit for analog system Power amplifier strengthens not only the signal but also the noise It cannot improve the SNR

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**Channel Capacity Theorem**

Shannon’s 3rd theorem Consider data rate, noise and error rate Faster data rate shortens each bit so burst of noise affects more bits At given noise level, high data rate means higher error rate Capacity C = B log2 (1+SNR) This is error free capacity

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**BER Bit error rate Figure of merit for digital system**

Probability that a bit is received in error

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**Transmission Systems – Conclusion**

Advantages of digital systems Impairments Performance metrics To be discussed in more details Transmission media Transmission techniques

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