Presentation on theme: "1 PEER TO PEER GROUP FORMATION AND COLLABORATION IN A REMOTE LABORATORY Program Committee : By : Prof. Kanchana Kanchanasut Prithula Dhungel Dr. Yasuo."— Presentation transcript:
1 PEER TO PEER GROUP FORMATION AND COLLABORATION IN A REMOTE LABORATORY Program Committee : By : Prof. Kanchana Kanchanasut Prithula Dhungel Dr. Yasuo Tsuchimoto Department of Computer Dr. Paul Janecek Science and Information Management School of Engineering and Technology Asian Institute of Technology 20 th April 2006, SOI Asia/AI3 joint Meeting 2006, Spring 18-20 April 2006, Hua Hin, Thailand
2 Background Problem Definition Objectives Methodology –Design –Implementation System Evaluation Conclusion Outline
3 Consider a scenario in a University Many laboratories inside the university desiring to provide remote laboratory access to remote users In each of the laboratories, experiment equipment interfaced to a computer Thermodynamics Control SystemMicroprocessor Given Scenario
4 Remote Student Different students interested in performing different laboratory experiments inside university (a single university) Remote Student Scenario ….
5 Remote Student For each laboratory, they want to perform experiments in group and collaboratively control remote equipment Scenario ….
6 Direct communication with each other and node providing device resources, without going through any central entity = > Peer to Peer environment Role based access right to control the experiment equipment (teacher, student) Teacher = > more privileges Student => less privileges Scenario ….
7 Remote Student Remote Teacher Student Teacher Scenario …. Inside Each Group
8 Provide remote collaborative access to all laboratories in the University Such a way that multiple laboratories in University are integrated into a single system Requirements
9 Remote Laboratory – The Past  Remote Student No concept of group formation and collaboration Figure : NUS Remote Laboratory System Server
10 Remote Laboratory – The Past  Figure : Web-based Environment for Collaborative Remote Experimentation (University of Hagen) Remote Student Allows group formation and collaboration among users Allows various roles to group members (teacher and student) Server Remote Equipment Remote Teacher Remote Student
11 Different laboratories inside a single University not integrated into a single software system –Users desiring to connect to different systems one by one should connect to each system separately (possibly using different user interfaces) Problem
12 1)Form multiple simultaneous groups of people based on their interest (people with same interest brought together in same group) 2)Provide access right assignment based on roles (teacher, student ) to members in each group 3)Allow collaborative conduction of experiment in each experiment group controlling actual hardware equipment 4)Allow member exit from group without effecting the working of the system Steps to Fulfill Requirements
13 Step 3 requires design and implementation specific to hardware devices in each laboratory Outside scope according to time and device constraints Steps to Fulfill Requirements
14 Hence.. The Objectives 1)Design architecture to form multiple simultaneous groups of nodes based on interests (integrate laboratories inside University to single system) 2)Design an architecture to provide role bases access right assignment to members in each group 3)Provide collaboration among members (text messages) 4)Allow members to exit from respective groups 5)Implement the designed system 6)Evaluate system performance using performance metric like delay, traffic flow, scalability, etc.
15 Peer to Peer Technology in Application Layer An overlay (logical ) network in Application layer Each peer has knowledge of the identities of only a certain number of peers in the network (neighbors) Design : Group Formation overlay edge (logical connection)
16 Nodes wanting to participate in laboratory experiments enter laboratory network as peers: nodes hosting equipment and students (and teachers) wanting to perform experiment Peers enter into Peer to Peer Network and announce their interests to search for other peers that share the same interest with them, using the help of neighbors Peer to Peer Network – What?
17 Nodes arranged in a logical circle Concept of Nodes and Group Names Node : Node wanting to be part of one of the groups Group Name : Name of the laboratory experiment group (Control System, Thermodynamics, Microprocessor) Node ----- > UNIQUE identifier (Hash IP, 128 –bit) Group Name ------ > UNIQUE key (Hash Group Name, 128 – bit) Group Formation– Pastry 
18 A Group Name with key K is mapped to a certain node in nodeID space (node that has nodeID numerically closest to the value of key K) Suppose, Key(Control System) = K Node responsible for key K Node X Key K Node X MAPPED TO Rendezvous Point for Key K Responsible for storing information about group named Control System (key K) Group Formation ….
19 Group Formation – How ? Rendezvous Point for the group Control System Message, Key = K Key(Control System) = K Send message tagged with key K Node X, responsible for key K Any message, sent by any node in network, tagged with key K will be routed to Node X (i.e. to node that has nodeID numerically closest to key K)
20 Control System RP Microprocessor RP Thermodynamics RP Register Node Interested in Microprocessor Node Interested in Thermodynamics Node Interested in Control System Group List Register Group List Group Formation – How ?
21 Our Scenario: –One or more hardware devices connected to each other and all interfaced to a single node (Resource Provider) –Performing experiment : changing parameters of one or more devices, that changes the output of the device and entire experiment Design : Role Based Access Right Assignment
22 Each node plays one of the following roles : Resource Provider : one per group (Analogous to the file system for Unix) Teacher: one per group (Analogous to the super user for Unix) Student: one or more per group (Analogous to the normal user for Unix) Access Rights : Control (Send control signals to a device) –Changing the parameters of the device –1 controller per device possible Observe (Observe the output of a device) –Numerous observers per device possible Role Based Access Right Assignment ….
23 ABC Resource Provider Controller and Observer details for each device Device List Request XYZ Access Right Request (Control, Observe, Revoke) CHANGES in Controller and Observer details for the device Check Request validity CHANGES in Controller/Observer details for each device DeviceRoleUser Signal Generator ControllerXYZ Observer---- Function Generator Controller---- ObserverXYZ ---- DeviceRoleUser Signal Generator ControllerXYZ Observer---- Function Generator Controller---- ObserverXYZ ---- DeviceRoleUser Signal Generator ControllerXYZ Observer---- Function Generator ControllerABC ObserverXYZABC Access Right Assignment
24 Each group formed is a mesh –Each member knows of all other existing members of the group –Collaboration (text messages) is direct among members without going through any central entity –Collaboration One to one One to many Design : Collaboration Among Members
25 ABC Resource Provider XYZ Exit from Group BYE Inform existing group members Design : Exit from Group
26 Rendezvous Point for the group Control System BYE Message, Key = K Key(Control System) = K Send BYE message tagged with key K Inform RP Exit from Group ….
27 FreePastry 1.4.2 API  using Java in Application Layer Xcast6 API  for using Xcast in the Network Layer (using C) (Bandwidth saving) Application Transport Network Data Link Physical Free Pastry 1.4.2 XCAST6 Used JNI (Java Native Interface) to call C functions from Java FreeBSD platform Implementation
28 Traffic Flow Compare performance of our system with other system using Unicast Stress on RP, stress on exiting node, stress on Resource Peer Total traffic flow in network for Group Formation, Group Leave, Access Right Update Scalability Ability of system to perform well in presence of large number of nodes Maximum members in each group, maximum simultaneous groups System Evaluation : Criteria
29 Traffic Flow –Analytically for 3 Topology Scenarios System Evaluation - Scenario
31 Stress – Traffic flow in RP when new node arrives Explanation - Sender has to send 1 packet instead of n individual packets to n receivers Result : Traffic (Stress)
32 Group Formation Traffic – Traffic that flows in whole network when a new node arrives to a group Explanation - Traffic gain in sender side is overwhelmed by the price receivers have to pay in terms of increased header size of XCAST - Data being transmitted is less in size Result : Traffic (Network)
33 Explanation - Traffic gain in sender side is more in comparison to price receivers have to pay in terms of increased header size of XCAST - Data being transmitted is large enough in size Result : Traffic (Network)
34 Explanation - XCAST6 does not support packet fragmentation - XCAST6 packet size limited to MTU of 1500 bytes Maximum Number of Members in a Group Result : Scalability Figure : Limit in the Group Size due to New Member Notification Message
35 Result : Scalability Maximum number of simultaneous groups –Depends on the scalability of Pastry ring in terms of maximum number of groups –Balanced Load property  of uniform hashing technique used in Pastry ensures even distribution of keys among all nodes –No one node is overloaded by having to be RP for unreasonably high number of group names –Each member can register for one group at a time –If n members present in ring, maximum possible number of registrations for separate groups in the ring is n => n simultaneous groups can exist –Theoretically maximum 2 128 nodes possible in ring –Theoretically, maximum 2 128 simultaneous groups possible
36 Addressed the problem of integrating numerous laboratories into single system Designed and implemented P2P based architecture to form multiple simultaneous groups (theoretically 2 128 groups possible); role based access right assignment inside each group Our design is efficient : failure of any one node does not affect the process of group formation and collaboration in entire network. Use of XCAST6 technology decreases the stress on sender side but increases the traffic flow in whole network System proposed will be able efficient in terms of traffic flow when later phases of remote laboratory will be implemented Results obtained in terms of maximum number of members and devices in each group are well above the requirement for practical collaborative remote laboratory groups Conclusion
37 Future Work Provide user authentication and security Implement the design proposed to provide robustness in presence of silent departure of nodes from the system Design and implement each laboratory specific system in the Resource Peer for interfacing and controlling respective experiment equipment Provide key word based searching for groups such that it obviates the need for any member to know the exact group name
38 1)Ko, C.C. et al. (2001). A Webcast Virtual Laboratory on a Frequency Modulation Experiment. IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Orlando, FL. 2)Röhrig, C., & Bischoff, A. (2003). Web-based Environment for Collaborative Remote Experimentation. Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control Maui, Hawaii USA. 3)Rowstron, A., & Druschel, P. (2001). Pastry: Scalable, Decentralized Object Location and Routing for Large-Scale Peer- to-Peer Systems. In the proceedings of the 18th IFIP/ACM International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms, Heidelberg, Germany. 4)FreePastry (2005). The FreePastry homepage. Retrieved November 2005, from: http://freepastry.org/FreePastry/ 5)XCAST over IPv6. Retrieved November 2005, from the SourceForge website: http://sourceforge.net/projects/xcast6/ 6)Karger, D. et al. (1997). Consistent Hashing and Random Trees: Distributed Caching Protocols for Relieving Hot Spots on the World Wide Web. STOC 97, EI Paso, Texas, USA. References
40 Pastry Based on the concept of Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) Hash Table –Given a key, finds the location in the table where the key belongs DHT –The tables are distributed –Given a key, finds the node where the key belongs
41 DHT for P2P Systems Organize DHTs as nodes in an overlay Every node in DHT knows about few other nodes in DHT Every node has a unique ID When node receives query for key K: –Forwards the query to neighbor whose ID is closest to K
42 Circular DHT Each node has two neighbors: successor and predecessor Information of a key is stored in closest successor
43 Circular DHT 0001 0011 0100 0101 1000 1010 1100 1111 information related to key 1110 stored here Whos resp For key 1110 I am O(N) messages on avg to resolve query
44 Pastry Each node is assigned a 128-bit nodeID The nodeID is viewed in base 16 –e.g., 65a1fc04 nodeID indicates nodes position in a circular nodeID space Each node knows its predecessor and successor nodes as well as few other nodes Node forwards message to node whose nodeID shares with K a prefix that is at least one digit longer than that the key shares with the present nodes nodeID
45 Pastry …. Each node maintains a leaf set and a routing table LeafSet –Contains nodeIDs and IP Addresses of L closest nodes (closest in terms of nodeId value) Routing Table –i th entry of table contains nodeIDs and IP Addresses of nodes sharing i prefixes with the nodeID of the node (O(log N)) Given a message tagged with key K, Pastry scheme routes the message to node that has a nodeID closest to K in value (O(log N) steps
47 Pastry Routing Procedure if (destination is within range of our leaf set) forward to numerically closest member in leaf set else if (theres a longer prefix match in routing table) forward to node with longest match else forward to node in table (a) shares at least as long a prefix (b) is numerically closer than this node
48 Pastry …. New node join –Suppose new node with ID X joins the network –Should know the IP Address of at least one node already in the ring => BootStrap node –New node sends join message to the ring (via the BootStrap node) with a key X –Join message will be routed to node Z (say) that is currently responsible for key X –LeafSet of Z is the LeafSet for X –Routing Table for X: All nodes encountered by join message on the way to node Z, send one row of their routing tables to X i th node encountered sends i th row
49 Multi unicast A B C D R1R2R3 R4 R5R6R7 R8 R9 Figure : Multi unicast n packets for n receivers Multi unicast wastes bandwidth since a packet per receiver is to be generated and transmitted (for n receivers, n packets from the source)
50 Multicast A B C D R1R2R3 R4 R5R6R7 R8 R9 Figure : Multicast 1 packet Only 1 packet coming out from the sender, but Overheads : Multicast routing entry per group in all intermediate routers Multicast routing protocols required
51 Xcast A B C D R1R2R3 R4 R5R6R7 R8 R9 Xcast header: Xcast header: IP header: Address partitioning Figure : Working of an Xcast network 1 packet Only 1 packet coming out of the source No state information required in the intermediate routers No additional routing protocols required
52 IPv6Hop By HopIPv6Routing ExtensionDestination OptionUDPData 408 32+ 16 * nF(n)874 Table : New Member Arrival Information Message Size (XCAST6) destinationHeaderLength = 8 for n = 3 to Number of Destinations do destOpt = 1 count = 1 while count <= 4 do variablePart = destOpt * 8 destinationHeaderLength = destinationHeaderLength + variablePart destOpt = 0 count ++ Figure : Calculation of Destination Option Header Size
53 IPv6 Header (bytes)UDP Header (bytes)Data (bytes) 40874 Table : New Member Arrival Information Message Size (Unicast) IPv6 Header (bytes)UDP Header (bytes)Data (bytes) 4088 + 65*n+1 Table : Existing Members Information Message Size Hence, Total packet size = 122 bytes Total bytes transferred to n receivers = 122 * n bytes
55 Stress in RP = Register message traffic from new node to RP + New Member Arrival message(s) traffic from RP to existing group members + Existing Group Members message traffic from RP to new node Group Leave Traffic = BYE message traffic from exiting node to remaining members of group + BYE message traffic from exiting node to RP