Tense is expressed by verbs with the help of four basic forms: infinitive, present participle, the past, and the past participle.
The infinitive is the most basic form of the verb, for example, look, eat, etc. To usually precedes the infinitive; sometimes it is not stated because it is understood (as shown in the examples below).
The present participle consists of the infinitive + ing and takes a form of the verb be as an auxiliary verb.
Examples 1)Aria loves to look at Elmo’s World. Inf. 2)The balloons made Aria look at the camera. lnf. 3)Aria is looking at the balloons. (is + looking = present participle)
Fact 2: Verbs are either transitive or intransitive.
Alec kicked the ball. Alec directed the action of kicking towards the ball. Kicked is a transitive verb.
What is a transitive verb? A verb is transitive when the object receives the action.
A verb is intransitive when 1)The boy was running. verb phrase There is no direct object in this sentence. Compare it with 2) Alec kicked the ball. Direct object The action of the verb is not directed towards anything or anyone.
A verb is intransitive when 2)The dog barked loudly. verb This sentence does not have a direct object. Loudly is not an object; it is an adverb that is modifying barked.
A verb is intransitive when 3)John is the head prefect. verb Is functions as a linking verb, it is an intransitive verb
Fact 3: Verbs agree in number with the subject.
Rules that govern this subject and verb agreement: When two singular subjects are connected by either/or, neither/nor, it is considered a singular subject. The verb shows agreement with this subject by the addition of –s. Neither Aria nor Alec subject eats cherries.
When one part of the compound subject is plural, and it is connected by either/or, neither/nor to the singular part, the plural subject comes after the singular subject. The verb agrees with the plural part of the subject. The verb shows agreement with this subject by the dropping of the –s. The boy nor the girls eat cherries. subject
When the compound subject is connected by and, it is considered a plural subject. Alec and Aria eat cherries. Compound subject
In cases where the subject is separated from the verb by phrases/words such as not, besides, along with, or as well as, ignore these words/phrases and ensure that the verb agrees with the actual subject. 1)The children, along with the teacher, are going to be interviewed. 2)Alec, as well as the Aria, is going to be interviewed. In both sentences the auxiliary verb agrees in number with the subject.
The following pronouns are singular: anybody, each, everyone, someone. 1) Everyone is entitled to fair treatment.
What is meant by continuous tense? The continuous tense is formed by the appropriate form of the verb be + the present participle of the main verb. This tense is used to express an incomplete action. 1) I am watching television. Form of be present participle 2) I was watching television. form of be present participle 3) I will be watching television. be present participle
What is meant by perfect tense? The perfect tense is formed by the appropriate form of the verb to have + the past participle of the verb. This tense is used to express an action that has been completed. 1)He has seen that movie. form of have past part. 2) He had seen that movie. form of have past part. 3) He will have seen that movie. have past part.
What is meant by participle? A participle is a word that is formed from a verb. Types of participles: Present participle (ends with –ing) Past participle (ends with –ed, -d, -t, -en or –n) Verb Past Participle Present Participle riserisen rising boilboiledboiling breakbrokenbreaking jumpjumpedjumping
Present Tense The present tense is used to talk about an action that happens in the present, or an action that is regularly repeated or a condition that is true. The present perfect is used to talk about an action that has been completed at an unspecified time.
Present TenseRulesExamples Present simple 1) use the infinitive form 2) –s or –es + infinitive form I work at Georgetown Hospital. He works at Georgetown Hospital. Present continuous Am/is/are + present participleI am working at Georgetown Hospital. He is working at Georgetown Hospital. Present perfect has or have +past participle of the main verb I have worked at Georgetown Hospital. He has worked at Georgetown Hospital. Present perfect continuous have/has + been +present participle I have been working at Georgetown Hospital. He has been working at Georgetown Hospital.
The past tense Past TenseRuleExamples Simple past+ d or –ed to the infinitive Alec jumped over the chair. She sold the watch yesterday. Past continuouswas or were + present participle Alec was jumping over the chair. They were eating when I left. Past perfect had + past participle of main verb Alec had jumped over the chair. Past perfect continuoushad been + present participleAlec had been jumping over the chair.
Future tense RuleExamples Simple future will or shall + infinitive form of the verb1. Alec will jump over the chair. Future continuous will be + present participle or am/is/are + going to be + present participle 2. Alec will be waiting for me. 3. Is Alec going to be waiting when I arrive? Future perfect will have + past participle or am/is/are + going to have +past participle 4. Alec will have perfected his alphabet. 5.Is he going to have perfected his alphabet by September? Future perfect continuous will have been + present participle or am/is/are + going to have been + present participle 6. Alec will have been waiting for more than two hours at the airport. 7. Alec is going to have been waiting for more than two hours for my arrival.