Presentation on theme: "9/14/2015 1 GENERAL RULES FOR FORMAL WRITING A very useful website for grammar rules as relates to the items contained herein is Grammar Girl Search grammar."— Presentation transcript:
9/14/2015 1 GENERAL RULES FOR FORMAL WRITING A very useful website for grammar rules as relates to the items contained herein is Grammar Girl Search grammar girl or visit: grammar.quickanddirtytips.com
9/14/2015 2 1. AVOID “I” AND “YOU” Write as general truths not “I” statements Avoid you, prefer: one, oneself, a person, people, etc.
9/14/2015 3 AVOID “I” It is preferred practice to avoid “I” in formal writing, especially argumentative or persuasive (unless specifically instructed to write as a personal opinion paper or in first person.) When presenting an argument you want to argue as fact-not opinion. – While your opinion may have been your starting point, if your argument is strong enough it is based upon facts and evidence to prove its correctness, so argue as such.
9/14/2015 4 2. AVOID CONTRACTIONS Write out complete words. If necessary re-word the sentence to avoid the contraction. Generally results in more formal, academic sound and better sentence structure.
9/14/2015 5 3. WRITE OUT ALL NUMBERS UNDER 10 Reserve digits for 10 and higher. Make sure you use commas and zeros correctly to create the correct number.
9/14/2015 6 4. DO NOT USE “th” and “st” in dates INCORRECT – February 8 th, 2012 CORRECT – February 8, 2012 For a more complete explanation relating to the use of cardinal numbers vs ordinal numbers (or just because you do not know what those words even mean) visit: http://grammar.quickanddirtyti ps.com/writing-dates.aspx http://grammar.quickanddirtyti ps.com/writing-dates.aspx
9/14/2015 7 5. AVOID PLAGIARISM AT ALL COSTS Use Quotation Marks for ALL “borrowed language” Make sure paraphrases are true paraphrases not just a word or two changed. Must have an in-text cite for paraphrases.
9/14/2015 8 USE PROPER IN-TEXT CITATION The quotation marks for direct quotes come BEFORE the parenthetical cite. The period comes AFTER the parenthetical cite. No punctuation between the quotation marks and the in-text citation. Example: “……and so on ” (Smith n. pag.).
9/14/2015 9 CITATIONS In-text MUST match the Work Cited including: – Spelling of author’s name – Punctuation of titles (in quotes or underlined/italicized) – Other punctuation (commas, etc.) not needed Exception-use a ; when separating two citations within one set of parentheses Example (Smith; Anderson 62)
9/14/2015 10 6. USE SIGNAL PHRASES DO NOT DROP IN QUOTATIONS!! Introduce the quote within your sentence It should flow with what you are explaining
9/14/2015 11 SIGNAL PHRASES Vary the language and placement Before: As Smith has noted, “…..” (Smith n.pag) As a break within: “….” argues Smith, “…” (Smith n.pag.) At the end: “…..” claims Smith (Smith n.pag.)
Altering wording of a quote-use brackets If you need to alter a word in a quote to make it flow/make sense in your [use brackets] Example: Numerous studies find that children’s exposure to violence has “a negative impact on [children’s] behavior” (Mowers). Original words were “a child’s” 9/14/2015 12
7. Maintain article title marks!! When no author Use first 3-4 words of title KEEP THE QUOTATION MARKS Example: (“Social Media Strikes”) 9/14/2015 13
9/14/2015 14 Formal Writing Grammar Challenges Also refer to the power point “Top Ten Words Most Often Confused/Misused”
9/14/2015 15 8. THAT VS WHO/WHOM WHO is used to indicate or in reference to a human. – Whom is the objective form and should be used when it is a direct/indirect object or the object of a preposition. – Example: To whom did you give the note? – In class yesterday the students whom I gave extra credit to fully deserved it. THAT is used to indicate nonhumans or inanimate objects. He is the one who deserved recognition. (NOT that deserved recognition)
9/14/2015 16 9. AGREEMENT ISSUES OR THE DREADED SVP’s SVP or singular versus plural, is an all too common grammatical/proofreading error. As such one must CAREFULLY LOOK FOR IT and correct it. If the subject is singular THEN ALL verbs and pronouns that reference it MUST be singular. The same if the subject is plural.
9/14/2015 17 SVP A person should really be careful of how they spend their time. A person should really be careful of how he/she spends his/her time. Formal (old school) training suggest always using the male gender (he/his) to indicate singular. Modern training (and Ms. Schaner) accept female (she/her) or the duo indicator as seen in the example above.
9/14/2015 18 SVP EXAMPLE It could also simply be that as one grows older, their interests change. It could also simply be that as people grow older their interests change. It could also simply be that as one grows older one’s interests change. Use word’s search feature for the common error words (their, everyone, one, etc.)
Searching for common errors in a word document 1. Open essay 2. Hit control “f” A search bar will open on the left hand side Enter the word you want to check. For example, “their” to check for singular versus plural. Enter an apostrophe ‘ to check for contractions. 9/14/2015 19
10. NEVER START A BODY PARAGRAPH WITH A DIRECT QUOTE Body paragraphs MUST be your topic sentence (minor claim) Direct quotes are EVIDENCE to support that claim. 9/14/2015 20
Check your originality report 20% or less Check that everything highlighted has an in- text citation Check that there is not more words from sources THAN YOUR OWN WORDS! Number one fix-EXPLAIN MORE!! 9/14/2015 21
9/14/2015 22 MLA FORMAT QUICK CHECK 1” margin all around 12 pt. Font Times New Roman Double-spaced Header-last name and page # Heading – Your Name – Instructor’s Name – Class Name – Date-in MLA Format Works Cited Page Works Cited-centered Alphabetical Order Hanging Indent ALL DATES in MLA Format Medium stated in each entry URL-if required