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The JIP Database 1. What it is? 2. JIP 2009 results 3. A robustness check on JIP Labor Input Data World KLEMS 1st Conference August 19-20, 2010 Kyoji Fukao.

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Presentation on theme: "The JIP Database 1. What it is? 2. JIP 2009 results 3. A robustness check on JIP Labor Input Data World KLEMS 1st Conference August 19-20, 2010 Kyoji Fukao."— Presentation transcript:

1 The JIP Database 1. What it is? 2. JIP 2009 results 3. A robustness check on JIP Labor Input Data World KLEMS 1st Conference August 19-20, 2010 Kyoji Fukao (Hitotsubashi Univeristy) Tsutomu Miyagawa (Gakushuin University) Joji Tokui (Shinshu University) 1

2 1. What is the JIP Darabase? JIP = Japan Industrial Productivity The JIP Database is compiled as one of the RIETIs research project. The RIETI (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry) is a government agency. We are providing the JIP data on the RIETIs website. http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/database/index.html 2

3 JIP database 2009 table index #1/5 (1) Input-Output table 1) Value of output and intermediate input table (current prices, million yen) [XLS:77KB] updated June 2, 2009 2) Value of output and intermediate input table (constant prices, million yen) [XLS:77KB] updated June 2, 2009 3) Input-output table (current prices, million yen) [ZIP:993KB] updated June 2, 2009 4) Input-output table (constant prices, million yen) [ZIP:1.36MB] updated June 2, 2009 5) Distribution of gross value added: current prices [XLS:305KB] updated June 2, 2009 1) Value of output and intermediate input table (current prices, million yen) [XLS:77KB] 2) Value of output and intermediate input table (constant prices, million yen) [XLS:77KB] 3) Input-output table (current prices, million yen) [ZIP:993KB] 4) Input-output table (constant prices, million yen) [ZIP:1.36MB] 5) Distribution of gross value added: current prices [XLS:305KB] i) Consumption of fixed capital ii) Indirect taxes and subsidies iii) Compensation of employees and mixed income iv) Operating surplus 6) Final demand by sectors (current prices, million yen) [XLS:298KB] updated June 2, 2009 7) Final demand by sectors (constant prices, million yen) [XLS:338KB] updated June 2, 2009 6) Final demand by sectors (current prices, million yen) [XLS:298KB] 7) Final demand by sectors (constant prices, million yen) [XLS:338KB] 3

4 JIP database 2009 table index #2/5 (2) Capital input 1) Investment by sectors [XLS:663KB] updated June 2, 2009 1) Investment by sectors [XLS:663KB] i) Investment by sector (constant prices, million yen) ii) Investment by asset (constant prices, million yen) iii) Indices of capital input by sector (2000=1.000) iv) Indices of capital quality by sector (2000=1.000) v) Average annual change in real net capital stock by sector (by percent) vi) Real net capital stock by sectors (year 2000 prices, million yen) vii) Real net capital stock by the type of capital goods (year 2000 prices, million yen) viii) Nominal capital services (nominal rental price*real net capital stock, million yen) 2) IT investment by sector [XLS:647KB] updated June 2, 2009 2) IT investment by sector [XLS:647KB] i) IT investment by sector (current prices, million yen) ii) IT investment by sector (constant prices, million yen) iii) IT investment (hardware) by sector (current prices, million yen) iv) IT investment (hardware) by sector (constant prices, million yen) v) IT investment (software) by sector (current prices, million yen) vi) IT investment (software) by sector (constant prices, million yen) vii) IT capital stock by sector (current prices, million yen) viii) Non-IT capital stock by sector (constant prices, million yen) 3) Investment matrix and stock matrix updated June 2, 2009 i) Investment matrix (current prices) [XLS:2.44MB] updated June 2, 2009 ii) Investment matrix (2000: constant prices) [XLS:2.43MB] updated June 2, 2009 iii) Stock matrix (2000: constant prices) [XLS:2.56MB]XLS:2.44MBXLS:2.43MBXLS:2.56MB 4

5 JIP database 2009 table index #3/5 (3) Labor input 1) Indices of labor input by sector (2000=1.000) [XLS:86KB] updated June 2, 2009 2) Average annual change in indices of labor input by sector (%) [XLS:41KB] updated June 2, 2009 3) Indices of man-hours by sector (2000=1.000) [XLS:85KB] updated June 2, 2009 4) Average annual change in man-hours (%) [XLS:41KB] updated June 2, 2009 5) Indices of labor quality by sector (2000=1.000) [XLS:101KB] updated June 2, 2009 6) Average annual change in indices of labor quality by sector (%) [XLS:41KB] updated June 2, 2009 7) Number of workers by sector [XLS:93KB] updated June 2, 2009 8) Man-hours by sector (1,000 workers* total annual working hours) [XLS:85KB] updated June 2, 2009 9) Nominal labor costs by sector (million yen) [XLS:85KB] updated June 2, 2009 10) Female ratio (female workers/total workers, %) [XLS:32KB] updated June 2, 2009 11) Part-time workers ratio (part-time workers/total workers, %) [XLS:32KB] updated June 2, 2009 12) Ratio of workers over 55 years old (workers over 55 years old/total workers, %) [XLS:32KB] 1) Indices of labor input by sector (2000=1.000) [XLS:86KB] 2) Average annual change in indices of labor input by sector (%) [XLS:41KB] 3) Indices of man-hours by sector (2000=1.000) [XLS:85KB] 4) Average annual change in man-hours (%) [XLS:41KB] 5) Indices of labor quality by sector (2000=1.000) [XLS:101KB] 6) Average annual change in indices of labor quality by sector (%) [XLS:41KB] 7) Number of workers by sector [XLS:93KB] 8) Man-hours by sector (1,000 workers* total annual working hours) [XLS:85KB] 9) Nominal labor costs by sector (million yen) [XLS:85KB] 10) Female ratio (female workers/total workers, %) [XLS:32KB] 11) Part-time workers ratio (part-time workers/total workers, %) [XLS:32KB] 12) Ratio of workers over 55 years old (workers over 55 years old/total workers, %) [XLS:32KB] 5

6 JIP database 2009 table index #4/5 (4) Growth accounting [ZIP:1.62MB] updated June 17, 2009ZIP:1.62MB 1) Individual spreadsheet titles 2) Definition of aggregate sectors 3) Output (year 2000 prices, million yen) 4) Growth rate of output (constant prices) 5) Output (current prices, million yen) 6) Intermediate input index (Divisia index, 2000=1.000) 7) Intermediate input (Simple total, year 2000 prices, million yen) 8) Intermediate input (current prices, million yen) 9) Value added (current prices, million yen) 10) Labor input index (Divisia index, 2000=1.000) 11) Labor costs by sector (current prices, million yen) 12) Indices of labor quality (2000=1.000) 13) Indices of man-hours (2000=1.000) 14) Indices of capital service input (Divisia index, 2000=1.000) 15) Capital services (current rental price*constant net capital stock, million yen) 16) Indices of capital quality (2000=1.000) 17) Indices of net capital stock (2000=1.000) 18) Cost share of production factor 19) Growth rate of sectoral TFP 20) Contribution by production factors (value added base) 21) Contribution by production factors (output base) 22) Growth accounting (value added base) 23) Growth accounting (output base) 24) TFP percentage change (value added base) 6

7 JIP database 2009 table index #5/5 (5) Supplementary tables updated June 2, 2009 1) Regulation Indices for 97 Sectors [CSV:45KB] updated June 2, 2009 2) Outward FDI by JIP 2009 Sector and Region: 1985-2005 [CSV:352KB] For figures in more detailed country classification, see RIETI FDI database. updated June 2, 2009 3) Share of Workers by Occupation and JIP 2009 Sector: 1980-2005 [CSV:444KB]CSV:45KBCSV:352KBRIETI FDI databaseCSV:444KB (6) Industry concordance with JSIC and ISIC updated June 28, 2008 CSV [CSV:121KB] PDF [PDF:218KB]CSV:121KBPDF:218KB 7

8 We are working on the team. JIP 2009 was compiled by the following scholars. Annual input-output tables FUKAO Kyoji (Hitotsubashi University) MATSUURA Toshiyuki (Keio University) OKANO Yusuke (Graduate School, Senshu University) KWON Hyeog Ug (Nihon University) Capital service input data MIYAGAWA Tsutomu (Gakushuin University) INUI Tomohiko (Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office and Nihon University) HISA Shoichi (RIETI Research Assistant) Labor input data TOKUI Joji (Shinshu University) MAKINO Tatsuji (RIETI Research Assistant) Supplementary tables ITO Keiko (Senshu University) INUI Tomohiko (Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office and Nihon University) MATSUURA Toshiyuki (Keio University) 8

9 JIP sector classification 9 JIP No.Sector NameJIP No.Sector NameJIP No.Sector Name 1Rice, wheat production37Miscellaneous iron and steel73Railway 2Miscellaneous crop farming38Smelting and refining of non-ferrous metals74Road transportation 3Livestock and sericulture farming39Non-ferrous metal products75Water transportation 4Agricultural services40Fabricated constructional and architectural metal products76Air transportation 5Forestry41Miscellaneous fabricated metal products77Other transportation and packing 6Fisheries42General industry machinery78Telegraph and telephone 7Mining43Special industry machinery79Mail 8Livestock products44Miscellaneous machinery80Education (private and non-profit) 9Seafood products45Office and service industry machines81Research (private) 10Flour and grain mill products46Electrical generating, transmission, distribution and industrial apparatus82Medical (private) 11Miscellaneous foods and related products47Household electric appliances83Hygiene (private and non-profit) 12Prepared animal foods and organic fertilizers48 Electronic data processing machines, digital and analog computer equipment and accessories84Other public services 13Beverages49Communication equipment85Advertising 14Tobacco50Electronic equipment and electric measuring instruments86Rental of office equipment and goods 15Textile products51Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits87Automobile maintenance services 16Lumber and wood products52Electronic parts88Other services for businesses 17Furniture and fixtures53Miscellaneous electrical machinery equipment89Entertainment 18Pulp, paper, and coated and glazed paper54Motor vehicles90Broadcasting 19Paper products55Motor vehicle parts and accessories91Information services and internet-based services 20Printing, plate making for printing and bookbinding56Other transportation equipment92Publishing 21Leather and leather products57Precision machinery & equipment93Video picture, sound information, character information production and distribution 22Rubber products58Plastic products94Eating and drinking places 23Chemical fertilizers59Miscellaneous manufacturing industries95Accommodation 24Basic inorganic chemicals60Construction96Laundry, beauty and bath services 25Basic organic chemicals61Civil engineering97Other services for individuals 26Organic chemicals62Electricity98Education (public) 27Chemical fibers63Gas, heat supply99Research (public) 28Miscellaneous chemical products64Waterworks100Medical (public) 29Pharmaceutical products65Water supply for industrial use101Hygiene (public) 30Petroleum products66Waste disposal102Social insurance and social welfare (public) 31Coal products67Wholesale103Public administration 32Glass and its products68Retail104Medical (non-profit) 33Cement and its products69Finance105Social insurance and social welfare (non-profit) 34Pottery70Insurance106Research (non-profit) 35Miscellaneous ceramic, stone and clay products71Real estate107Other (non-profit) 36Pig iron and crude steel72Housing108Activities not elsewhere classified

10 Sectors, and years the JIP covers. The JIP covers 108 sectors, of which 52 sectors are manufacturing, and of which 46 sectors are services. These sectoral classification are on the activity (commodity) basis, not on the industry basis. The JIP 2009 covers years from 1970 to 2006. Now we are preparing the JIP 2010, scheduled to be provided on September. 10

11 How we construct the JIP data? – (1) Input-Output (IO) Tables The symmetric IO Tables of the JIP are based on three types of IO tables compiled by the Japanese government: 1) Linked IO Tables (every 5 years), 2) Annual Extended IO Tables (annually), 3) SNA IO Tables (annually). Using RAS method we estimate the JIP-108-sector IO tables annually. 11

12 How we construct the JIP data? – (2) Capital We construct net capital stock and capital service indices. 39 types of assets×108 sectors We construct investment series by industry and by asset. We use capital formation data from the Fixed Capital Flow Matrix, which is published every five years. We interpolate the data for intervening years by using industry-specific surveys. To construct net capital stock series we use the perpetual inventory method based on BEA depreciation rates for various types of assets. 12

13 How we construct the JIP data? – (3) Labor The JIP labor data is cross-classified by gender, age (11 categories), education (4 categories), and employment status of workers (3 categories). For employment status of workers, we have the category of part-time workers. Since sectral classification of labor data is based on industry, we convert labor data into activity base using V-table of SNA to be consistent with the IO tables and capital series. 13

14 14

15 2. JIP 2009 results 15

16 In the order of 1980s TFP growth rate 16

17 In the order of 1980s TFP growth rate 17

18 18 In the 1980s there were sharp contrast between productivity-rising sectors and productivity-declining sectors. In the 1990s productivity change was slowed in the overall sectors. In the first half of 2000s it seems to be the emergence of some productivity-rising sectors. But these productivity-leading sectors in the 2000s are not the same as those in the 1980s.

19 Growth Accounting -(1) Macroeconomy Table1. Macroeconomy 1970-801980-90 1990 2000 2000-20052005-20062000-2006 Real GDP Growth4.15%4.58%1.23%1.89%1.54%1.83% Contribution of Labor Input Growth1.11%0.92%-0.10%-0.20%1.70%0.12% Contribution of Man-hours Growth0.28%0.38%-0.55%-0.69%0.69%-0.46% Contribution of Labor Quality Growth0.82%0.54%0.45%0.48%1.01%0.57% Contribution of Capital Input Growth1.69%2.01%1.17%0.74%0.69%0.73% Contribution of Capital Quantity Growth2.14%1.59%1.08%0.49%0.38%0.47% Contribution of Capital Quality Growth-0.46%0.43%0.10%0.25%0.31%0.26% TFP Growth1.36%1.64%0.16%1.35%-0.85%0.99% Output and material input growth rates are calculated using a cost based Divisia quantity index. 19

20 Growth Accounting -(2) Manufacturing Table 2. Manufacturing sectors 1970-801980-90 1990 2000 2000-20052005-20062000-2006 Real GDP Growth4.72%6.30%0.95%2.71%5.38%3.16% Contribution of Labor Input Growth0.13%0.90%-1.31%-1.41%3.01%-0.67% Contribution of Man-hours Growth-0.47%0.42%-1.84%-1.73%1.56%-1.18% Contribution of Labor Quality Growth0.60%0.48%0.53%0.32%1.45%0.51% Contribution of Capital Input Growth0.77%1.69%0.92%1.40%1.94%1.49% Contribution of Capital Quantity Growth1.06%1.24%0.78%0.98%1.65%1.09% Contribution of Capital Quality Growth-0.29%0.45%0.14%0.42%0.29%0.40% TFP Growth3.82%3.71%1.34%2.72%0.43%2.34% Output and material input growth rates are calculated using a cost based Divisia quantity index. 20

21 Growth Accounting -(3) Non-manufacturing Table 3. Non-manufacturing sectors (Only market economy, Excluding Housing and Activities not elsewhere classified) 1970-801980-90 1990 2000 2000-20052005-20062000-2006 Real GDP Growth3.44%4.34%1.03%1.52%0.05%1.27% Contribution of Labor Input Growth1.36%1.01%0.12%-0.52%1.85%-0.13% Contribution of Man-hours Growth0.37%0.34%-0.34%-0.88%0.37%-0.67% Contribution of Labor Quality Growth1.00%0.67%0.46%0.35%1.48%0.54% Contribution of Capital Input Growth1.67%2.03%1.11%0.51%0.45%0.50% Contribution of Capital Quantity Growth 1.81%1.62%0.96%0.33%0.16%0.30% Contribution of Capital Quality Growth-0.14%0.40%0.16%0.19%0.28%0.21% TFP Growth0.41%1.31%-0.20%1.53%-2.25%0.90% Output and material input growth rates are calculated using a cost based Divisia quantity index. 21

22 The Japanese economic growth somewhat recovered in the first half of 2000s after experiencing slow growth in the 1990s. This recovery was mainly caused by the TFP growth. In 2006 the TFP growth began to stagnate, which effect was partly offset by the increase in labor input. We can find these tendencies in both manufacturing and non-manufacturing sector. 22

23 3. A robustness check on JIP Labor Input Data As a robustness check on JIP labor data, we estimated the productivity disparities between self- employed workers and employees by estimating a production function. The data we used are enterprise-level micro data from the Census of Manufacturing between 1981 and 2000. Tokui, Joji, Tatsuji Makino, and Yoko Takahashi, Productivity Disparities between Self-Employed Workers and Employees, RIETI Discussion Paper 09- J-018 (in Japanese). 23

24 First-difference OLS estimation of production function sample size 2736845 R**2 0.294 coefficientstandard errorp-value relative productivity(*) capital service 0.0690.000 capital service × self- employed dummy -0.0110.0020.000 intermediate input 0.3250.0010.000 female employee in corporation -0.1480.0030.0000.760 male employee in non- corporation -0.0620.0050.0000.900 female emplyee in non-corporation -0.2210.0050.0000.642 male self-employed 0.2420.0190.0001.392 female self-employed -0.0140.0220.5340.978 constant term 0.0160.000 (*)It means relative productivity of each category's worker to male employee in corporation. 24

25 Figure 1. JIP labor input after adjusting self-employed workers productivity 25


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