2 SKIN---Structure *Skin is the largest organ on the human body. *The skin consists of two main layers:the epidermis and the dermis.*Cells in the epidermis make lipids which makes your body waterproof.* Dermis contains the sebaceous glands which helps skin from drying out.*Subcutaneous layer- a layer of fat and connective tissue located beneath the dermis.
4 SKIN--- FunctionSkin protects you from pathogens, regulates your body temperature, and helps you feel sensations.Protection- Barrier to prevent bacteria and viruses from entering.Temperature control- Skin dilates to allow heat to escape.Sensation- Major sense organ: Pressure, pain, heat, coldImmunity-macrophages destroy invading pathogens.Excretion- SWEAT is excess water and dissolved wastes.Vitamin D synthesis- makes VD when exposed to UV radiationInterpersonal communication- Automatically expresses some emotions ( pale & blushing)
5 Keeping your Skin Healthy Wash face 2 times a dayWash you body everydayAVOID touching your face with your handsAvoid allergic reactions.Eat plenty of vitamins, minerals:Vitamin AMilkGreen and yellow vegetablesLiver
6 Skin Problems Acne- clogged pores become infected and pus forms. Warts are caused by viruses and can be spread through direct physical contact.Boils form when hair follicles become infected. Do not burst or squeeze a boil.Dermatitis, or eczema, is inflamed skin usually caused by an allergic reaction.Vitiligo occurs when patches of skin lose melanin and have no pigment.
7 Skin ProblemsFungal infections are spread by contact with skin, clothing, or in public showers.Moles are usually harmless, but they can develop into melanoma, which can be deadly.
8 Melanoma Tanned skin is a sign that skin has been damaged by UV rays. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can lead to skin cancer.Early detection and treatment are critical in controlling the spread of melanoma.Regularly checking the appearance of your moles is important for the early detection of melanoma.
9 ABCD’s of Melanoma A B C D Asymmetry Border Irregularity Color Diameter
10 Skin Problems Asymmetry Border Irregularity Color Diameter The ABCD’S of MelanomaAn imaginary line drawn through the center of the mole does not produce matching halves.AsymmetryBorder IrregularityNon-cancerous moles have smooth edges. Suspect moles often have irregular edges.Look for moles that are intensely black, possibly with a bluish tint, or that have an uneven color.ColorCheck for moles that are wider across than the width of a pea.Diameter
11 HAIRHair structure- Dead cells. Living cells in the epidermis make new hairs and cause hair to grow.Hair grows on every surface of the skin, except for the palms of the hand and the soles of the feet.Hair function- The eyebrows and eyelashes protect the eyes from dust and other particles.
12 Hair ProblemsDandruff- Dead skin cells that are shed as sticky white flakes.Head lice- Tiny parasitic insects that live in scalp hair.
13 NailsNail Structure- Your fingernails and toenails are made of closely packed dead cells that contain keratin.Nail Function- help protect your fingers and toes.
14 Lesson 2 – Teeth and Mouth Parts of the toothThe periodontium supports the tooth and holds it in place.periodontium is made up of the gum, ligaments, and the jawbone.Three main parts to every toothCrown- visible portion of the toothNeck- between the crown and rootRoot- In the gum
15 Parts of a ToothEnamel- hard substance made of calcium.Dentin- beneath enamel. It is a layer of connective tissue that contributes to the shape and hardness of a tooth.Protected by the overlying layers of dentin and enamel, the pulp extends into the root canal.
17 Parts of a Tooth enamel dentin gum gingivia pulp cavity with nerves and vesselscementumperiodontal ligamentsperiodontal membraneroot canalbone
18 Keeping Teeth HealthyOral hygiene, which includes brushing and flossing your teeth, is necessary for healthy, clean teeth.Tooth decay occurs when the enamel is destroyed and bacteria penetrate the tooth.Plaque damages the tooth by coating it, sealing out the saliva that normally protects the tooth from bacteria.
19 Keeping Your Teeth and Mouth Healthy If plaque builds up, acids produced by bacteria break down the tooth enamel, resulting in a cavity.If decay spreads down to the pulp, the tooth may have to be removed.
20 Mouth ProblemsHalitosis can be caused by eating certain foods, poor oral hygiene, smoking, bacteria on the tongue, decayed teeth, and gum disease.Gum disease, or periodontal disease, is caused by bacterial infection.*When plaque hardens, it builds up tartar, a hard, crustlike substance, and causes the gums to become irritated and swollen.*This is called gingivitis. If left untreated, the bone and tissue that support the teeth are destroyed, and teeth can be lost.
21 Lesson 3- Your EyesYour eyes sit in bony sockets, called orbits, at the front of your skull.A layer of fat cushions each eyeball inside its socket.The lacrimal gland secretes tears into the eye through ducts.Tears keep the surface of the eyeball moist and clear of foreign particles.
22 Parts of the Eye sclera cornea choroid iris vitrius humor pupil lens optic nerveretinacorneairispupillensaqueous humor
23 Lesson 3- EyesRods are light sensitive cells that allow us to see in dim light. Cones are light sensitive cells that allow us to see in bright light and in color .
24 Parts of the Eye Words in black are definitions Protects the inner eye and supports and shapes the eyeballScleraCorneaBends and focuses light before it enters the lensChoroidLines the inside of the scleraIrisContracts and dilates the pupilRegulates the amount of light that reaches the inner eyePupil
25 Parts of the Eye Words in black are definitions RetinaContains light-sensitive cellsOptic NerveTransmits nerve impulses to the brainLensHelps refine the focus of images on the retinaAqueous HumorProvides nutrients to the eyeHelps the eyeball stay firm and keeps the retina in placeVitreous Humor
26 Vision – 20/20 Nearsightedness, or Myopia Farsightedness, or Hyperopia Common Vision DisordersNearsightedness, or MyopiaThe inability to see distant objects clearlyFarsightedness, or HyperopiaThe inability see close objects clearlyAstigmatismBlurred visionStrabismusEyes off-center, turned inward or outwardDetached RetinaBlurred vision or bright flashes of light
27 Vision Infections and Viruses Glaucoma Cataracts Macular Degeneration Common Vision ProblemsInfections and VirusesSwelling, irritation, blurred vision, change in sclera colorCloudy, impaired vision, can cause permanent damageGlaucomaCataractsFoggy visionMacular DegenerationVision loss