Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Cardiovascular System Chapter 42 IB Biology. Biological Function of Cardiovascular System T R A N S P O R T ! –Maintains constant flow of : Nutrients.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Cardiovascular System Chapter 42 IB Biology. Biological Function of Cardiovascular System T R A N S P O R T ! –Maintains constant flow of : Nutrients."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cardiovascular System Chapter 42 IB Biology

2 Biological Function of Cardiovascular System T R A N S P O R T ! –Maintains constant flow of : Nutrients Hormones Respiratory Gases Wastes Enzymes to /from tissue cells!

3 3 Major Components of CV System 1.Blood 2.Blood Vessels 1.Arteries / Arterioles 2.Veins / Venules 3.Capillaries 3.Heart


5 Heart Anatomy 250-300 grams--size of fist Located in mediastinum Rests on diaphragm 2/3 left of midline Shifts toward right shoulder Apex points to left hip



8 Protective Features of the Heart P E R I C A R D I U M Layered membrane surrounding heart Fibrous pericardium –Tough, superficial layer Serous pericardium –Thin, deep layer subdivided into: Parietal layer: lines underside of fibrous pericardium Epicardium: lines external surface of heart Pericardial cavity: btwn parietal layer and epicardium filled with fluid!


10 Pericarditis Inflammation of pericardium Pericardial fluid increases pressure on heart Cardiac tamponade

11 Heart Anatomy 3 Layers of Heart Wall 1.Epicardium: Superficial Layer Composed of CT 2. Myocardium: Intermediate Layer Composed of Muscle 3. Endocardium: Deep Layer Composed of Endothelium


13 Internal Heart Anatomy FOUR CHAMBERS 2 ATRIA (Right Atrium, Left Atrium) Entry Chambers 2 VENTRICLES (Right Ventricle, Left Ventricle) Exit Chambers

14 Right atrium Left atrium Right ventricle Left ventricle

15 So what’s the big deal about a four chambered heart? E F F I C I E N C Y

16 What leads to the heart’s efficiency? A T R I O V E N T R I C U L A R S E P T U M wall that creates a physical separation between right and left sides of heart (Interatrial septum + Interventricular septum = Atrioventricular Septum)


18 How does the AV septum lead to efficiency? Creates two hearts in one! Maintains separation between oxygenated blood (high O 2 / low CO 2 ) and deoxygenated blood (low O 2 / high CO 2 ) Oxygenated blood always on left side! Deoxygenated blood always on right side!


20 Mixing of Blood Occurs! Mixing of Blood Prevented!


22 superior vena cava inferior vena cava pulmonary artery aorta pulmonary veins pulmonary veins

23 Coronary Artery Provides blood to the myocardium of the heart!

24 Arteries vs. Veins ARTERY Always conducts blood AWAY from the heart! Usually carries oxygenated blood VEIN Always conducts blood TOWARD the heart! Usually carries deoxygenated blood

25 Heart Valves Flaps that open/close passageways for blood through the heart

26 2 Major Types of Valves: 1.Atrioventricular (AV) Valves Found between atria and ventricles Right AV Valve = Tricuspid Valve Left AV Valve = Bicuspid Valve / Mitral Valve


28 Chordae tendinae / papillary muscles Open/close AV valves Prevent valves from opening backwards

29 Valves prevent backflow incompetent valve heart murmur

30 2.Semilunar Valves found between ventricles and blood vessels leading out of the heart Right Valve = Pulmonary Semilunar Valve Left Valve = Aortic Semilunar Valve

31 31 Right AV (tricuspid) Left AV (bicuspid) Pulmonary semilunar Aortic semilunar

32 Circulatory Pathways Systemic Circulation: blood flows to/from body tissues Pulmonary Circulation: blood flows to/from lungs Coronary Circulation: blood flows to/from heart muscle

33 The Heart’s Assignment… …maintaining blood flow through ALL circulatory pathways of the body!

34 Right side receives blood from tissues and pumps to lungs (pulmonary circulation) Left side receives blood from lungs and pumps to tissues (systemic circulation)

35 Pathway of Blood Through the Heart Heart acts as double pump (Rt side/left side) Both pumps act in unison Deoxygenated blood returns to heart through vena cava Right side pumps blood to lungs Oxygenated blood returns to heart through pulmonary veins Left side pumps blood to body

36 Blood through the heart

37 Capillaries of lungs for oxygenation Inferior & superior vena cavae Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right ventricle Pulmonary semi- lunar valve Pulmonary trunk (arteries)

38 Arteries of body Capillaries of tissues--exchange gases Veins of body Pulmonary veins Left atrium Bicuspid valve Left ventricle Aortic semi- lunar valve Aorta

Download ppt "Cardiovascular System Chapter 42 IB Biology. Biological Function of Cardiovascular System T R A N S P O R T ! –Maintains constant flow of : Nutrients."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google